Gabit caste surnames


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  • Fishing of maharastra
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  • India can’t become a Hindu Pakistan and a developed nation at the same time. Modi must choose

    Each region has a different dialect , pronunciation style, vocabulary, tone and sometimes, significant differences in grammar. Population The Census Department of India, figures put the number of Konkani speakers in India as 1,, making up 0. It ranks 15th in the list of Scheduled Languages as per strength. The figures of census are not yet public. A very large number of Konkanis stay outside India , either as expatriates or citizens of other countries NRIs.

    Determining their numbers is difficult. Ethnologue puts the number of Konkani speakers at 7. Origins There are conflicting theories on the origins of the Konkani Language. The Konkani language developed in the region known as Konkan which in the past meant the entire western coast of India , except for Gujarat but was primarily centered in Gomantak now Goa.

    That is how it got its name. One theory suggest that a group of Aryans settled after migrating from their mythical homeland on the banks of the Sarasvati River in north India when the river dried up around BC.

    They brought their own dialect of Sauraseni Prakrit , which over time evolved into modern Konkani. An alternate theory suggests that Konkani is a Sanskritised version of a language spoken by the Kokna tribe.

    The Kokna tribals also referred to as Kokni or Kukni or Kukna are now found in North Maharashtra and South Gujarat, but may have been the primary settlers in the Konkan region, judging by the name. History Early Years Konkani flourished in Goa. Brahmi script was initially used for writing in Konkani but it fell into disuse, giving way to the Devanagari script.

    It was used extensively for religious purposes as well as daily use. Other Communities Other Konkani communities came into being with their own dialects of Konkani. The Konkani Muslim communities of Ratnagiri and Bhatkal came about due to a mixture of intermarriage of Arab seafarers and locals as well as conversions of Hindus to Islam.

    Another migrant community that picked up Konkani was the Siddis who were sailor-warriors from Ethiopia. Migration and Fragmentation The arrival of the Portuguese lead to sea changes in Konkani.

    The conversion of Konkanis to Christianity and the religious policies of the Portuguese caused a large number of Konkanis to flee to neighbouring territories. The isolation of Hindu and Christian Konkanis added to the fragmentation of Konkani into multiple dialects. The language spread to Canara coastal Karnataka , Kokan-patta costal Konkan division of Maharashtra and Kerala during the last years due to migration of Konkanis.

    Although a few Konkanis may have been present in the neighbouring areas and there may have been migrations due to economic reasons in the past, the main cause of migration was the Portuguese control over Goa. It was spread to these areas by Hindu Konkani and Christian Konkani speakers in three waves of migration. The first migration occurred during the early years of Portuguese rule and the Inquisition of s.

    The second wave of migration was during the war with the Sultan of Bijapur. The third wave of migration happened during the wars of with the Marathas. While the first wave was of Hindus fleeing religious persecution, the second and third waves were mainly those of Christians. Since these communities had to interact with others in local languages on a daily basis, Konkani dialects show strong local influences in terms of script, vocabulary and also style. Konkani in Portuguese Goa Early in the era of Portuguese colonization, Christian missionaries realized the importance of propagating in local tongues and translated Christian Literature into Konkani and sometimes Marathi, the most notable among them being Fr Thomas Stephens.

    They also wanted to sever the links the new converts had with their culture through Konkani. Coupled with the imposition of Portuguese as an official language, it lead to a steady influence of Portuguese in the Konkani spoken by the Christians. At the same time, the Hindus of Goa veered towards Marathi as a language of religious ceremonies. Also the interaction between Marathis and Konkanis in the past, that had resulted in Konkanis being bilingual with Marathi, now cemented the status of Marathi as the daily language of Hindus in Goa, including Konkanis.

    Upper class Christians used Konkani only to communicate with the lower classes and poor, using Portuguese in social gatherings. Compared to this, the migrant communities outside Goa , kept Konkani alive , even if it resulted in fragmentation. The Devanagari script came into use in Maharashtra, while Kannada Script was used by migrants to Karnataka. Konkani Revival Shenoi Goembab Konkani was in a sorry state, due to the use of Portuguese as the official and social language among the Christians; the predominance of Marathi over Konkani among Hindus and the Konkani Christian-Hindu divide.

    Seeing this Vaman Raghunath Varde Valaulikar set about on a mission to unite all Konkanis, Hindus as well as Christians, regardless of caste or religion. He saw this movement not just as a nationalistic movement against Portuguese rule, but also against the pre-eminence of Marathi over Konkani. Almost single handedly he crusaded, writing a number of works in Konkani. He is regarded as the pioneer of modern Konkani literature and affectionately remembered as Shenoi Goembab.

    However, with the reorganization of states along linguistic lines, and growing calls from Maharashtra, as well as Marathis in Goa for the merger of Goa into Maharashtra, an intense debate was started in Goa. A plebiscite retained Goa as an independent state in However, English, Hindi and Marathi continued to be the preferred languages for official communication, while Konkani was sidelined.

    Recognition as an Independent Language With the continued insistence of some Marathis that Konkani was a dialect of Marathi and not an independent language, the matter was finally placed before the Sahitya Akademi.

    Sunit Kumar Chatterjee, the president of the Akademi appointed a Committee of linguistic experts to settle the dispute. On February 26, , the Committee after due deliberation, came to the conclusion that Konkani was indeed an independent and literary language. Finally fed up with the delay Konkani lovers launched an agitation demanding official status to Konkani in The agitation turned violent in various places resulting in the death of six agitators.

    Scripts Konkani is written in a number of scripts. Brahmi was originally used but fell into disuse. Devanagari is the official script for Konkani in Goa.

    Roman script is also popular in Goa. The Kannada script is used amongst the Konkani population of Karnataka. Malayalam script is used by the Konkani community, centered around the cities of Cochin and Kozhikode in Kerala state.

    The dialect tree structure of Konkani can easily be classified according to the region, religion, caste and local tongue influence. The people of the Konkan region comprising the Konkan administrative division of Maharashtra state and Goa.

    This article takes a look at both the meanings. Communities Konkanis are a very diverse group of people. The diversity is reflected in the religion, geographical spread, origins and dialects.

    The follwoing are the major groups among the Konkanis: Hindus.

    Sc Caste Surname List In Maharashtra / Scheduled caste welfare:socialjustice.nic.in list of.

    The state also has 16, km of rivers and canals, 2. The average fish yield from FFDA ponds is about 1. The constraints in fish production are: unregulated multi-day fishing activity, quality seed and low utilization of resource potential. The annual fish production in state is 5. These measures will ensure an annual fish production level of around 7 lakh tonnes, along with the molluscs, that commands a price as a delicacy food in national and international markets.

    With average annual marine fish landings of 3. The annual landings valued at about Rs 2, Crores contributed 0. State of marine fish stocks in Maharashtra Maharashtra with a long coastline of km is endowed with 70 creeks and protected bays and rich marine fishery resources. The average annual marine fish landings during 10 were of 3. The marine fishery is multi-species supported by tropical species with relatively smaller size, fast growth, almost continuous breeding and low volume biomass nature with rapid turnovers.

    However, marine fishery is facing crisis since late nineties owing to overfishing, urbanization, domestic and industrial pollution and habitat degradation. Among the commercially important resources, Bombayduck, silver pomfret, elasmobranchs and lobster resources have declined significantly while vulnerable resources such as sand lobster Thenus orientalis , Indian halibut Psettodes erumei and Karakara Pomadasys hasta have almost disappeared and thread fin Rawas and Dhara and jew fish Ghol are facing severe depletion.

    The marine fishery is dominated by mechanized trawlers, purse seiners, gill netters and dol netters that venture beyond territorial waters in search of fish while small and marginal fishers practicing traditional fishing are deprived of fish in inshore and nearshore waters. Mariculture alone may offer them opportunities to conserve and grow fish in coastal waters for their livelihood by adopting capture based aquaculture.

    Primarily they are fisherman and boatman. They are adept in various methods of river fishing and are regularly employed as a worker on a ferry. Their connection with water has led to them becoming the water-carrier for Hindus. People of India.

    It has a large number of sub-divisions of a local or occupational nature. Marriage is prohibited between members of the same sept and between first cousins.

    In many localities, families do not intermarry so long as they remember any relationship to have existed between them Singh The occupations of Dhiwar are many and various. They monopolizes growing Singade or water nuts in tanks; also grows melons, cucumbers and other vegetables on the sandy stretches along the banks of streams, but at agriculture proper they do not excel. Bhoi are traditionally dependent upon the river Adan for their subsistence. Due to depleting fish resources their lives are in danger.

    Karnataka and Maharashtra. In Goa, they are distinct from the Kharvi community found mostly in the south of that state, although they share a similar traditional occupation. The Gabits are primarily a fishing community and are concentrated in the northern talukas of Canacona, Pernem and Salcete.

    Fishing of maharastra

    Coupled with the imposition of Portuguese as an official language, it lead to a steady influence of Portuguese in the Konkani spoken by the Christians. At the same time, the Hindus of Goa veered towards Marathi as a language of religious ceremonies.

    Also the interaction between Marathis and Konkanis in the past, that had resulted in Konkanis being bilingual with Marathi, now cemented the status of Marathi as the daily language of Hindus in Goa, including Konkanis.

    Upper class Christians used Konkani only to communicate with the lower classes and poor, using Portuguese in social gatherings.

    Central List of Other Backward Castes (OBCs): Maharashtra

    Compared to this, the migrant communities outside Goakept Konkani aliveeven if it resulted in fragmentation. The Devanagari script came into use in Maharashtra, while Kannada Script was used by migrants to Karnataka.

    Konkani Revival Shenoi Goembab Konkani was in a sorry state, due to the use of Portuguese as the official and social language among the Christians; the predominance of Marathi over Konkani among Hindus and the Konkani Christian-Hindu divide. Seeing this Vaman Raghunath Varde Valaulikar set about on a mission to unite all Konkanis, Hindus as well as Christians, regardless of caste or religion.

    He saw this movement not just as a nationalistic movement against Portuguese rule, but also against the pre-eminence of Marathi over Konkani. Almost single handedly he crusaded, writing a number of works in Konkani. He is regarded as the pioneer of modern Konkani literature and affectionately remembered as Shenoi Goembab. However, with the reorganization of states along linguistic lines, and growing calls from Maharashtra, as well as Marathis in Goa for the merger of Goa into Maharashtra, an intense debate was started in Goa.

    A plebiscite retained Goa as an independent state in However, English, Hindi and Marathi continued to be the preferred languages for official communication, while Konkani was sidelined. Recognition as an Independent Language With the continued insistence of some Marathis that Konkani was a dialect of Marathi and not an independent language, the matter was finally placed before the Sahitya Akademi.

    Sunit Kumar Chatterjee, the president of the Akademi appointed a Committee of linguistic experts to settle the dispute. On February 26,the Committee after due deliberation, came to the conclusion that Konkani was indeed an independent and literary language. Finally fed up with the delay Konkani lovers launched an agitation demanding official status to Konkani in The agitation turned violent in various places resulting in the death of six agitators.

    Scripts Konkani is written in a number of scripts. Brahmi was originally used but fell into disuse. These Maratha farmers wield significant influence and authority in their villages.

    Then there are the very poor farmers and landless labourers. Maratha leaders argue that the condition of the bottom two classes, which comprise most of the Maratha population, has worsened with bouts of drought and agrarian crises.

    A study by the Pune-based Gokhale Institute of Politics and Economics said 26 per cent of the 3, farmers from the Marathwada and Vidarbha regions who committed suicide between April and March were from ue4 remote control Maratha community.

    In Marathwada particularly, 53 per cent of the farmers who killed themselves in despair belonged to the Maratha community. Pravin Gaikwad, a leader of Maratha organisation Sambhaji Brigade and an expert in reservation studies, said all classes of Marathas are ultimately tied to farm land and the stratification developed more out of a revenue or tax structure.

    The perception is that the Maratha community takes pride in identifying itself as Kshatriya, but Gaikwad said the community has always belonged to the Shudra fold and there is enough documentary evidence to support it. But as per dharmashastra, the Marathas remain Shudra. Just because someone wants to call a Shudra a Kshatriya, the issues of the community do not change.

    The Kunbi caste gets reservations under the OBC category. It said, the Maratha claimed a Kshatriya rank and showed pride in their Rajput lineage, while Kunbis were cultivators and were considered Shudras.

    They could do so both due to the landowning pattern in these regions and a historically developed close interaction among these groups. The key is to allow everyone to have their heroes, to be tolerant of differences and paper over cracks. Consider the communal undercurrent to the Uttar Pradesh election was stronger than most realise.

    That may work in elections, but it cannot build that new India Modi promises. Almost every Indian has a strong sense of culture, history and belonging. In this modern, cellphone-driven era of instant and alternative truths, that sense of belonging is diverging and intensifying.

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    In Bengaluru, if a glowering half-face of Hanuman in saffron is the leitmotif of many Hindu taxi drivers, the leaping tiger of Tipu Sultan adorns the windscreens of some Muslim auto drivers. The key is to allow everyone to have their heroes, to be tolerant of differences, and paper over cracks.

    Many expect the prime minister to finally get started on what are perceived as long-delayed radical reforms to the economy and bureaucracy, but author and Morgan Stanley global strategist Ruchir Sharma is sceptical. He believes Modi, from starting as a Ronald Regan-style capitalist reformer, is transitioning to a Donald Trump-style populist with distinctly socialist policies.

    If Modi does take the populist route, a further consolidation of Hindus is possible, and inclusiveness may be less important. For instance, the increasingly fractious debates around supposedly seditious talk and right-wing violence. As the television anchor Karan Thapar points out herefreedom of speech—legally—includes the right to offend.

    The latest instance is from Rajasthan, where it was revealed last week in the Hindustan Times that school students will now be taught that the Rajput king Maharana Pratap defeated the Mughal emperor Akbar.

    Expect such efforts to grow because BJP state governments will now feel more emboldened than ever to recreate history. On this score, expect no interference from the top.


    thoughts on “Gabit caste surnames

    1. I can not participate now in discussion - it is very occupied. But I will return - I will necessarily write that I think.

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