Which of the following statements about voter identification laws is most accurate


  • Voter ID Laws
  • State Voter Identification Requirements: Analysis, Legal Issues, and Policy Considerations
  • Political Typology Quiz
  • Among those states, 19 permit voters without ID to cast a ballot through alternative means, such as signing an affidavit; 13 strictly enforce the ID requirement. The other 18 states and the District of Columbia have a range of nondocument requirements instead. Over the last two decades, the number of states requiring voter IDs has tripled. The stringency of those requirements is controversial. States vary substantially in the range of IDs accepted, the information they must contain, and the ease with which a voter can procure an ID.

    Although all states requiring voter ID accept a local driver's license, no two states have the same overall requirements. In addition, eight states require ID for voters casting absentee or mail-in ballots.

    Several states enacted voter ID laws that have been struck down by courts or are not yet in effect. Recent congresses have seen a number of bills with voter ID provisions, including H.

    State legislatures also continue to consider the issue. Supporters of the more stringent requirements often emphasize the need to prevent voter fraud, while opponents emphasize the need to avoid disenfranchising legitimate voters who do not have ready access to an accepted ID.

    Polling data suggest that most voters and most local election officials support a voter ID requirement but that many are also concerned about the risk of disenfranchisement.

    Both voter fraud and disenfranchisement pose potential risks to the integrity of the electoral process, but the policy debate is being conducted in the absence of a consensus about the evidence pertaining to those risks, with available studies producing a broad range of results.

    As with the election, leading up to the November 8, , presidential election, state voter photo ID laws have been challenged under the Fourteenth Amendment to the U. Such challenges have drawn attention in view of a U. Supreme Court ruling that upheld the constitutionality under the Fourteenth Amendment of a voter photo ID law, and because some suits have been brought under Section 2 of the VRA, which in the past, has generally been invoked in the context of redistricting.

    As the case law challenging voter photo ID laws under Section 2 of the VRA is just beginning to develop, it ultimately may be considered by the U. Supreme Court. Election administration is complex, and changes in voter ID requirements may affect elections in unanticipated ways, such as a need for more provisional ballots, increased waiting times at polling places, and misapplication of the rules by pollworkers.

    The longer that election officials have to implement changes to voting procedures, the lower the risk of unintended and potentially harmful consequences may be. The impact of state voter ID laws is likely to continue to be a topic of high interest beyond November It seems likely that state legislators will continue to consider such legislation in the future.

    The election may provide useful data on the implementation and performance of voter ID laws, which Congress may choose to examine, and which may lead to greater consensus about the benefits and disadvantages of voter identification requirements.

    State Voter Identification Requirements: Analysis, Legal Issues, and Policy Considerations Introduction and Overview More than half the states require a voter to provide a specified identification document ID to cast a ballot at the polling place, and a few extend the requirement to absentee or mail-in voting. Many states require an ID with a photograph of the voter photo ID.

    Some require a document that does not need to include such a photograph nonphoto ID. Others do not require any type of ID to vote, but a voter may be asked to provide certain information to verify what is contained in the registration record or otherwise confirm his or her identity, such as stating an address or birth date or providing a signature. Voter identification requirements across the states vary in flexibility, in the types of documents allowed, in exceptions made to the requirements, and in the recourse available to a voter who cannot comply with the ID requirement at the polls.

    Photo ID requirements in particular have been a major issue of policy debate in recent years, but for both photo and nonphoto ID, the range of IDs accepted and how strictly the state enforces the requirement have also been sources of controversy. Debates over such requirements are typically complex and can be contentious. This report provides an updated overview of state requirements for voters to present some form of ID before casting a ballot in a federal election.

    The scope is limited to identification requirements for voting; the report does not address voter registration requirements. Nine of those permit no alternatives to photo IDs. Another 9 states require a voter to show a photo ID, if available, but also permit means of identification other than an ID.

    Examples of such alternatives include signing an affidavit and permitting the voter to cast a provisional ballot, with the election office confirming identity subsequently by matching information or a signature provided by the voter to what the office has on file see Table A Fourteen states require a voter to present an ID but accept documents that do not include a photo, such as a voter registration card, current utility bill, hunting or fishing license, bank statement, paycheck, tribal ID, Social Security card, or other approved document see Table A See " Differences in Voter Identification Requirements among the States " for further discussion of requirements among the states.

    The Help America Vote Act Identification Requirement and the Origins of Voter Photo ID A number of notable developments are relevant to the increased attention to voter identification in policy debates during the past 15 years. Requirements for voters to present an ID have reportedly been in force in some states since at least the s. Ford and Jimmy Carter. A photo ID is already required in many other transactions, such as check-cashing and using airline tickets.

    These Commissioners point out that those who register and vote should expect to identify themselves. If they do not have photo identification then they should be issued such cards from the government or have available alternative forms of official ID. They believe this burden is reasonable, that voters will understand it, and that most democratic nations recognize this act as a valid means of protecting the sanctity of the franchise. Since , states have been required to maintain a single, computerized list of all registered voters that every election official in the state can access.

    An individual who registers to vote by mail and has not previously voted in a federal election in the jurisdiction must provide a current, valid photo ID or a copy of a current utility bill, bank statement, government check, paycheck, or other government document with the voter's name and address, whether voting in person or by mail.

    A voter who does not provide required documentation may submit a provisional ballot that is counted in accordance with state law if the appropriate election official determines that the voter is eligible. Another provision in HAVA made clear that states are free to adopt more stringent election administration requirements than those imposed by the act: The requirements established by this title are minimum requirements and nothing in this title shall be construed to prevent a State from establishing election technology and administration requirements that are more strict than the requirements established under this title so long as such State requirements are not inconsistent with the Federal requirements under this title or any law described in section Baker, III.

    Its report repeated the recommendation of the Carter-Ford Commission for states to adopt an ID requirement for voters.

    A notable bill from the th Congress, H. It would have required photo ID and proof of citizenship to vote in federal elections. It would also have required that voters who cast a provisional ballot because they did not have the required ID present an approved ID within 48 hours for the ballot to be counted. The bill included an exception for military and overseas voters.

    It would have required states to provide photo IDs to qualified voters who did not have them, and to provide them to indigent voters at no cost. It would have authorized appropriations to cover the costs of providing such IDs to indigent voters. The bill was not taken up by the Senate before the th Congress adjourned, but several states have adopted similar requirements see Table A Public Opinion on Voter ID Requirements Much of the public discussion about voter ID focuses on how to balance the goals of preventing voter fraud and protecting voter rights see " Impacts on Turnout and Voter Fraud ".

    Public opinion surveys over the past decade have consistently found significant majority support for requiring a photo ID to vote.

    The wording of the questions has varied, with some surveys providing more context about the issues than others. Although all of the surveys described broad categories of ID, several specified that they be "valid," "official," or "government" documents. The same poll asked whether voter suppression—described as eligible voters taken off registration lists or denied the right to vote—was a problem in presidential elections.

    One question from that poll joined those two concepts by asking which was more of a concern to the respondent, the potential for vote fraud or the potential that eligible voters could be denied the right to vote. The response was about evenly split, with a few percent more stating they thought vote fraud was more of a concern. It is not clear to what extent respondents in any of the polls were aware of evidence on the degree to which voter fraud occurs; nor is it possible to know how such information would have affected their opinions.

    No information was found in the surveys about how voters respond to the different specific kinds of photo ID that different states permit e. These and similar policy concerns remain factors in the ongoing debate about whether obtaining required ID presents an undue hardship for some who wish to vote, or whether voter IDs are essential, despite any such hardships, to prevent voter fraud see " Implementation Issues and Policy Considerations ".

    Some of those bills contain provisions would promote or protect voter ID requirements, while provisions in others would modify, restrict, or eliminate the use of such requirements. It would amend Section 2 of the Voting Rights Act VRA relating to the requirement for federal courts to block procedures that deny or abridge voting rights. It would expand the kinds of violations that would trigger such actions by the courts, but it would exclude voter photo ID requirements from the list of violations under the section.

    It would amend the VRA to require preclearance under Section 4 of state changes to voter ID requirements that would make them more stringent than either those required of first-time voters under HAVA or, for voter registration, those in effect in the state at the time of enactment of the bill.

    It would amend HAVA to permit a voter—other than a first-time voter who registered by mail—to meet an identification requirement for voting by signing a sworn statement attesting to his or her identity. The bill would require states to make preprinted statements available to absentee voters and at the polls, and it would prohibit a state from requiring a voter who presents the form to be required to vote a provisional ballot.

    The bill stipulates that states or jurisdictions with such requirements shall accept a tribal identification card as valid for that purpose.

    As of June , none of those bills had received further consideration by the committees to which they were referred. A discharge petition was filed that month for H. Differences in Voter Identification Requirements among the States As with many aspects of election administration, states vary widely with respect to verifying voter identity. Some require photo ID, others nonphoto ID, and yet others nondocument identification.

    Some states with ID requirements accept a broad range of documents, while others permit only a narrow range. Some states permit voters without ID to confirm their identity through another means, while others do not.

    Figure 1. Note: "Strictly enforced" means that, with specified exceptions see Appendix , a voter who does not present the required ID at the polling place either cannot vote or must take action after leaving the polling place to verify his or her identity in order for the ballot to be counted.

    The figure depicts state voter ID requirements as of the date of this report. Ongoing litigation in some states may lead to changes in requirements that may not be reflected in the figure. See text. As shown in Figure 1 and the two tables in the Appendix , 32 states require a voter to show ID before voting at a polling place. Table A-1 describes the specific requirements for photo ID states, and Table A-2 for states requiring an ID that need not be photographic.

    For purposes of this report, whether an ID requirement is considered strictly enforced is based on interpretation of the requirement as described in state law or available guidance.

    In a state with a strictly enforced requirement, a voter who does not present the required ID at the polling place—with certain exceptions that vary among the states—either cannot cast a ballot at all or must cast a provisional ballot and take action after leaving the polling place to verify his or her identity in order for the ballot to be counted.

    Examples of such alternative means of identification include signing an affidavit or providing a nonphoto ID. In some states voters may cast a provisional ballot, and the election office will attempt to confirm identity subsequently by matching information or a signature that is provided by the voter against the information that the office has on file.

    Georgia and Indiana were the first states to enact strictly enforced photo ID requirements, in and , respectively. The most recent such requirement is that of North Dakota, enacted in Oregon and Washington conduct elections entirely by mail. In these two states, election officials mail ballots to all registered voters, who are not required to provide IDs when submitting those ballots. Both states also permit voters to cast a ballot in person during a designated voting period that ends on Election Day.

    Washington requires either a photo ID or signature declaration for in-person voting. Oregon uses signature verification for both mail-in and in-person ballots. For example, Kansas permits voters with religious objection against being photographed to sign a form declaring the objection either in advance or at the polling place.

    Photo ID is required to vote in Arizona. There are three ways of fulfilling the ID requirement: List 1: Submit one document from the following list: - Valid Arizona driver's license - Tribal enrollment card or other form of tribal identification - Valid U. Passport without address and one valid item from List 2 - U. Military identification without address and one valid item from List 2 If you go to your polling place without an approved form of ID, you can vote using a conditional provisional ballot.

    This ballot will be valid and counted as long you provide valid identification to your polling location before pm on Election Day.

    Alternatively, you have up to five business days after a general election and three business days after any other election to provide your identification to your county elections office. Arizona offers in-person early voting. No excuse is needed to vote early. You can pre-register to vote in Arizona if you will turn 18 by the next general election. Arizona has open primaries. Any registered voter can participate in primary elections, regardless of political party.

    For primaries, registered independent voters may choose one party's primary ballot to vote on and will remain independent for future elections. Arizona does not offer Election Day registration, so be sure to submit your voter registration before the deadline.

    Valid forms of ID include: - Driver's license. A person who is a resident of a long-term care or residential care facility licensed by the state of Arkansas is not required to verify his or her registration by presenting a document or identification card as described above when voting in person, but must provide documentation from the administrator of the facility attesting that the person is a resident of the facility.

    Note: A document or identification card may be presented in a digital format on an electronic device if it complies with other requirements and has been approved or issued by the U. If you go to your polling place without an approved form of ID, you can vote a provisional ballot. Provisional ballots cast in this manner will be counted if: a The voter completes a sworn statement at the polling site stating that the voter is registered to vote in this state and that he or she is the person registered to vote, and the county board of election commissioners does not determine that the provisional ballot is invalid and should not be counted based on other grounds, or b The voter returns to the county board of election commissioners or the county clerk by noon on the Monday following the election and presents a document or identification card meeting the requirements described above, and the county board of election commissioners does not determine that the provisional ballot is invalid and should not be counted based on other grounds.

    Arkansas offers in-person early voting. Depending on the type of election being conducted, you may vote early during the 7 or 15 days prior to Election Day. You can pre-register to vote in Arkansas if you will turn 18 before the next election.

    Arkansas has open primaries. Arkansas does not offer Election Day registration, so be sure to submit your voter registration before the deadline. If you registered to vote but your name does not appear on the precinct voter registration list, or if you are unable to comply with identification requirements, you have the right to cast a Provisional Ballot after signing an affirmation that you are a registered voter in the county and are eligible to vote in that election.

    Contact your county elections office to see if they offer early voting. You can pre-register to vote in California when you turn In California, presidential primaries are closed. For all other primaries, California uses a top-two primary system that allows voters to choose among all candidates running for each office. The two candidates who receive the most votes in the Primary Election qualify for the General Election. If you are voting in person at a voter service and polling center, an ID is required to vote in Colorado.

    If you are voting by mail for the first time, you may also need to provide a photocopy of your ID with your mail ballot. Note: documents issued to not lawfully present and temporarily lawfully present individuals under Part 5 of Article 2 of Title 42, C. If you go to a voter service and polling center without an approved form of ID, you may cast a provisional ballot.

    Your provisional ballot is counted if you complete the provisional ballot affidavit and the election official confirms your eligibility to vote.

    Colorado offers in-person early voting. Voters do not need an excuse to vote early in-person. Early voting begins no more than 15 days before election day, and may vary by county. You can pre-register to vote in Colorado when you turn Colorado has semi-open primaries.

    Approved excuses include: - you are an active member of the armed forces of the United States - you will be out of town during all the hours of voting on Election Day - illness will prevent you from voting in person on Election Day - your religious beliefs will prevent you from performing secular activities like voting on Election Day - you will be performing duties as an election official at a polling place other than your own during all the hours of voting on Election Day - you have have a physical disability that prevents you from voting in person on Election Day ID is required to vote in Connecticut.

    Valid forms of ID include: - Social security card - Any pre-printed form of identification that shows your name and address, or name and signature, or name and photograph If you go to your polling place without one of the forms of ID as described above, you can vote a regular ballot by signing an affidavit in lieu of ID.

    Connecticut does not offer early in-person voting. You can pre-register to vote in Connecticut if you are at least 17 and will turn 18 by the next election. Connecticut has closed primaries. Voters registered with a particular party may only vote in that party's primary.

    Election Day Registration is not available at your polling place, but is available at a designated EDR location in each town, beginning at 6 am and ending at 8 pm. You will register and vote at the designated EDR location in your town. Delaware Voters can only vote absentee in Delaware with an approved excuse. Approved excuses include: - If you are in public service of the U.

    Reason 1 also applies to members of the Uniformed Services. Reason 2 also applies to persons providing care to a parent, spouse or child who is living at home and requires constant care, students, and otherwise eligible persons who are incarcerated. Note: if you fall under the final reason you will receive a full Primary Election ballot, but your General Election ballot will only have Federal Offices. Citizens temporarily residing outside of the U. ID is not required to vote in Delaware, but you will be asked for it at the polls.

    Passport - Signed Polling Place or Social Security Card - Signed vehicle registration - Signed credit card with photo - A similar document that identifies the person by photo or signature If you go to your polling place without an approved form of ID, you can sign an affidavit affirming your identity and then vote normally.

    Delaware does not currently offer early voting. Early voting will be available starting in You can pre-register to vote in Delaware when you are 16 years old. Delaware has closed primaries. Delaware does not offer Election Day registration, so be sure to submit your voter registration before the deadline.

    ID is not required to vote in D. However, some polling places require ID to enter the facility. It is therefore encouraged that you take some form of identification with you to vote.

    You must also show proof of residence if you are a first-time voter who did not submit ID upon registration, or if you are registering during the early voting period or on Election Day. DC offers in-person early voting. Early voting begins no more than 12 days before the election. Early vote locations and hours of operation are set by the DC Board of Elections.

    You can pre-register to vote in D.

    In California, presidential primaries are closed. For all other primaries, California uses a top-two primary system that allows voters to choose among all candidates running for each office.

    Voter ID Laws

    The two candidates who receive the most votes in the Primary Election qualify for the General Election. If you are voting in person at a voter service and polling center, an ID is required to vote in Colorado. If you are voting by mail for the first time, you may also need to provide a photocopy of your ID with your mail ballot. Note: documents issued to not lawfully present and temporarily lawfully present individuals under Part 5 of Article 2 of Title 42, C.

    If you go to a voter service and polling center without an approved form of ID, you may cast a provisional ballot.

    State Voter Identification Requirements: Analysis, Legal Issues, and Policy Considerations

    Your provisional ballot is counted if you complete the provisional ballot affidavit and the election official confirms your eligibility to vote. Colorado offers in-person early voting. Voters do not need an excuse to vote early in-person. Early voting begins no more than 15 days before election day, and may vary by county.

    You can pre-register to vote in Colorado when you turn Colorado has semi-open primaries. Approved excuses include: - you are an active member of the armed forces of the United States - you will be out of town during all the hours of voting on Election Day - illness will prevent you from voting in person on Election Day - your religious beliefs will prevent you from performing secular activities like voting on Election Day - you will be performing duties as an election official at a polling place other than your own during all the hours of voting on Election Day - you have have a physical disability that prevents you from voting in person on Election Day ID is required to vote in Connecticut.

    Valid forms of ID include: - Social security card - Any pre-printed form of identification that shows your name and address, or name and signature, or name and photograph If you go to your polling place without one of the forms of ID as described above, you can vote a regular ballot by signing an affidavit in lieu of ID. Connecticut does not offer early in-person voting.

    You can pre-register to vote in Connecticut if you are at least 17 and will turn 18 by the next election.

    Political Typology Quiz

    Connecticut has closed primaries. Voters registered with a particular party may only vote in that party's primary. Election Day Registration is not available at your polling place, but is available at a designated EDR location in each town, beginning at 6 am and ending at 8 pm.

    You will register and vote at the designated EDR location in your town. Delaware Voters can only vote absentee in Delaware with an approved excuse. Approved excuses include: - If you are in public service of the U. Reason 1 also applies to members of the Uniformed Services.

    Reason 2 also applies to persons providing care to a parent, spouse or child who is living at home and requires constant care, students, and otherwise eligible persons who are incarcerated. Note: if you fall under the final reason you will receive a full Primary Election ballot, but your General Election ballot will only have Federal Offices.

    Citizens temporarily residing outside of the U. ID is not required to vote in Delaware, but you will be asked for it at the polls. Passport - Signed Polling Place or Social Security Card - Signed vehicle registration - Signed credit card with photo - A similar document that identifies the person by photo or signature If you go to your polling place without an approved form of ID, you can sign an affidavit affirming your identity and then vote normally. Delaware does not currently offer early voting.

    Early voting will be available starting in You can pre-register to vote in Delaware when you are 16 years old. Delaware has closed primaries. Delaware does not offer Election Day registration, so be sure to submit your voter registration before the deadline. Most U. Business corporations make too much profit Most corporations make a fair and reasonable amount of profit How much, if at all, would it bother you to regularly hear people speak a language other than English in public places in your community?

    A lot Not much Not at all On a scale of 0 towhere 0 means you feel as cold and negative as possible and means you feel as warm and positive as possible, how do you feel toward… How do you feel toward Democrats?

    How do you feel toward Republicans? Which of these statements best describes your opinion about the United States?

    The U. How much of a problem, if any, would you say each of the following are in the country today? People being too easily offended by things others say Major problem.


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