The spotted turtle read theory answer key


  • 1. Indigenous America
  • Why should humans protect sea turtles? How are sea turtles able to return to the same beach to nest? There are several theories as to how they locate this area, but none have yet been proven. Using these two characteristics, a sea turtle may be able to determine its latitude and longitude, enabling it to navigate virtually anywhere.

    Early experiments seem to show that sea turtles have the ability to detect magnetic fields. Whether they actually use this ability to navigate is the next idea being investigated.

    Beach characteristics used may include smell, low-frequency sound, magnetic fields, the characteristics of seasonal offshore currents and celestial cues. Back to top 2. How does a sea turtle nest? The nesting process consists of several stages. The female turtle emerges from the sea at night and ascends the beach, searching for a suitable nesting site somewhere dark and quiet. Once at the chosen nesting site, she begins to dig a body pit by using all four flippers.

    She removes the dry surface sand beneath her, which will later be used to cover the egg chamber. Once she has created a body pit, she begins to dig an egg chamber using her rear flippers, alternating between the right and left flipper to scoops out the damp sand.

    When she can reach no deeper, she pauses and begins contractions, her rear flippers rising off the sand. Soon she begins laying eggs. Following each contraction, the female turtle will drop between one and four eggs in quick succession.

    The eggs will almost fill the chamber. Once her clutch is complete, she closes the nest using her rear flippers in a similar way to digging her egg chamber, just in reverse. She places sand on top of the chamber, until the eggs are completely covered. She gently pats the damp sand on top of her eggs, using the underside of her shell plastron. The camouflaging process now begins. Slowly moving forward, she throws dry, surface sand behind her. This is an effort to conceal the location of her eggs from predators.

    She may move forward while she is doing this. When she is done, she heads down the beach and returns to sea. Back to top 3. How many eggs do sea turtles lay? The number of eggs in a nest, called a clutch, varies by species. In addition, sea turtles may lay more than one clutch during a nesting season. On average, sea turtles lay eggs in a nest, and average between 2 to 8 nests a season.

    The smallest clutches are laid by Flatback turtles, approximately 50 eggs per clutch. The largest clutches are laid by hawksbills, which may lay over eggs in a nest. Back to top 4. What do sea turtle eggs look like? They are the size and shape of ping-pong balls with a soft shell. Usually eggs are spherical in shape, although occasionally, they are misshaped elongated or adjoined with calcium strands.

    Some sea turtles lay small infertile eggs, which only contain albumin egg white. The Leatherback turtle lays some of these infertile eggs in every clutch, but the other species of sea turtle lay these eggs infrequently. Back to top 5. What determines the sex of a sea turtle? Warmer temperatures produce mostly females, and cooler temperatures produce a majority of males. There is a pivotal temperature that produces an equal ratio of males and females. The temperature determining sex ratio differs between species and nest locations.

    Back to top 6. Do mother turtles attend to their nests? Once a nest has been completed, the female never returns to it. The eggs and resulting hatchlings are left to fend for themselves and locate the water upon emerging. Back to top 7. Why do hatchlings emerge together? Because hatchlings are small and the egg chambers are deep, it is almost impossible for a single hatchling to escape from the chamber alone. As hatchlings break free from their shell inside the egg chamber, they stimulate other hatchlings to emerge from their eggs too.

    Once most hatchlings have emerged from their shells, they climb on top of the discarded eggshells to propel themselves to the top of the chamber. The hatchlings near the top of the egg chamber scratch down sand from above and around them. They emerge either en masse or in small groups.

    Emerging together increases the chance of survival as many hatchlings can overwhelm would-be predators. A single hatchling would be an easy target. Back to top 8. Why do some researchers say there are seven species of sea turtles and some say there are eight species? The difference in number is based on whether or not the black sea turtle is a separate species from the green sea turtle. The debate centers on the genetic difference between the green sea turtle and the black sea turtle.

    Most sea turtle researchers believe that the black sea turtle should be called the Pacific green turtle because it is a sub-species of the green sea turtle and, as a result, has almost identical genetic traits. Some sea turtle researchers believe that the physical characteristics and other behavioral difference indicate that it should be classified as its own species. Back to top 9. How do hatchlings and adults locate the ocean? They are guided by the brightest light, which is usually moonlight reflecting on the sea.

    Turtles avoid shadows, including dune vegetation at the top of the beach, places where danger could lie. Back to top What do sea turtles eat and do they have teeth? Each species feeds on a diet specific to that species. For example, loggerheads feed mainly on hard-shelled organisms such as lobsters, crustaceans, and fish.

    Green turtles prefer sea grasses, while leatherbacks feed primarily on jellyfish. Hawksbills have a hawk-like beak that is used to cut through tough coral, anemones and sea sponges. Loggerheads have powerful jaws that crush shellfish and mollusks. How deep can sea turtles dive? Leatherbacks can dive to a depth of more than 1, meters 3, feet in search of their prey, jellyfish. The hard-shelled species dive at shallower depths.

    The leatherback is adapted to deep dives because of its unique morphology. Unlike other sea turtles, the leatherback lacks a rigid breastbone that allows it to collapse during deep dives.

    There is a large amount of oil in the skin and the leathery shell absorbs Nitrogen, reducing problems arising from decompression during deep dives and resurfacing. How long can a sea turtle hold its breath? And why do they drown? As sea turtles are air breathing reptiles, they need to surface to breathe. Sea turtles can hold their breath for several hours, depending upon the level of activity. A resting or sleeping turtle can remain underwater for hours. Recent research has shown that some turtles can even hibernate in the sea for several months!

    However, a stressed turtle, entangled in fishing gear for instance, quickly uses up oxygen stored within its body and may drown within minutes. How big was the largest sea turtle ever recorded? The largest species of sea turtle was the Archelon, which measured 7 meters about 21 feet in length and lived during the time of the dinosaurs.

    Today, the largest living species is the leatherback turtle. Atlantic leatherbacks are slightly larger than the Pacific population. Leatherbacks measure, on average, 2 meters 6 feet in carapace shell length. The largest leatherback ever recorded was a male found stranded on the Welsh coast in He measured almost 3 meters 9 feet from tip to tail and weighed kg 2, lbs.

    How are sea turtles tracked in the ocean and how long can they be tracked for? Researchers track sea turtles through using satellite telemetry. The transmitter emits signals of information to an orbiting satellite when the turtle surfaces to breathe or bask. Data, received over a period of time, allows for tracking a turtles movement patterns and swimming speed.

    Usually, satellite transmitters are attached to females that come ashore to nest.

    Reference Material I. Humans have lived in the Americas for over ten thousand years. Dynamic and diverse, they spoke hundreds of languages and created thousands of distinct cultures. Native Americans built settled communities and followed seasonal migration patterns, maintained peace through alliances and warred with their neighbors, and developed self-sufficient economies and maintained vast trade networks.

    They cultivated distinct art forms and spiritual values. Kinship ties knit their communities together. But the arrival of Europeans and the resulting global exchange of people, animals, plants, and microbes—what scholars benignly call the Columbian Exchange—bridged more than ten thousand years of geographic separation, inaugurated centuries of violence, unleashed the greatest biological terror the world had ever seen, and revolutionized the history of the world. It began one of the most consequential developments in all of human history and the first chapter in the long American yawp.

    The First Americans American history begins with the first Americans. But where do their stories start? Native Americans passed stories down through the millennia that tell of their creation and reveal the contours of Indigenous belief. The Salinan people of present-day California, for example, tell of a bald eagle that formed the first man out of clay and the first woman out of a feather.

    Archaeologists and anthropologists, meanwhile, focus on migration histories. Twenty thousand years ago, ice sheets, some a mile thick, extended across North America as far south as modern-day Illinois. Between twelve and twenty thousand years ago, Native ancestors crossed the ice, waters, and exposed lands between the continents of Asia and America.

    These mobile hunter-gatherers traveled in small bands, exploiting vegetable, animal, and marine resources into the Beringian tundra at the northwestern edge of North America. DNA evidence suggests that these ancestors paused—for perhaps fifteen thousand years—in the expansive region between Asia and America.

    Some ancestral communities migrated southward and eastward. Evidence found at Monte Verde, a site in modern-day Chile, suggests that human activity began there at least 14, years ago. Similar evidence hints at human settlement in the Florida panhandle and in Central Texas at the same time. In the Northwest, Native groups exploited the great salmon-filled rivers. On the plains and prairie lands, hunting communities followed bison herds and moved according to seasonal patterns.

    In mountains, prairies, deserts, and forests, the cultures and ways of life of paleo-era ancestors were as varied as the geography. These groups spoke hundreds of languages and adopted distinct cultural practices. Rich and diverse diets fueled massive population growth across the continent. Agriculture arose sometime between nine thousand and five thousand years ago, almost simultaneously in the Eastern and Western Hemispheres.

    Corn—as well as other Mesoamerican crops—spread across North America and continues to hold an important spiritual and cultural place in many Native communities. Prehistoric Settlement in Warren County, Mississippi. Vicksburg Riverfront Murals. Agriculture flourished in the fertile river valleys between the Mississippi River and the Atlantic Ocean, an area known as the Eastern Woodlands.

    There, three crops in particular—corn, beans, and squash, known as the Three Sisters—provided nutritional needs necessary to sustain cities and civilizations. In Woodland areas from the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River to the Atlantic coast, Native communities managed their forest resources by burning underbrush to create vast parklike hunting grounds and to clear the ground for planting the Three Sisters.

    Many groups used shifting cultivation, in which farmers cut the forest, burned the undergrowth, and then planted seeds in the nutrient-rich ashes. When crop yields began to decline, farmers moved to another field and allowed the land to recover and the forest to regrow before again cutting the forest, burning the undergrowth, and restarting the cycle.

    This technique was particularly useful in areas with difficult soil. In the fertile regions of the Eastern Woodlands, Native American farmers engaged in permanent, intensive agriculture using hand tools. The rich soil and use of hand tools enabled effective and sustainable farming practices, producing high yields without overburdening the soil.

    Agriculture allowed for dramatic social change, but for some, it also may have accompanied a decline in health. Analysis of remains reveals that societies transitioning to agriculture often experienced weaker bones and teeth.

    Farmers could produce more food than hunters, enabling some members of the community to pursue other skills. Religious leaders, skilled soldiers, and artists could devote their energy to activities other than food production. Spiritual practices, understandings of property, and kinship networks differed markedly from European arrangements. Most Native Americans did not neatly distinguish between the natural and the supernatural.

    Spiritual power permeated their world and was both tangible and accessible. It could be appealed to and harnessed. Kinship bound most Native North American people together.

    Most people lived in small communities tied by kinship networks. Many Native cultures understood ancestry as matrilineal: family and clan identity proceeded along the female line, through mothers and daughters, rather than fathers and sons. Native American culture, meanwhile, generally afforded greater sexual and marital freedom than European cultures. Native Americans generally felt a personal ownership of tools, weapons, or other items that were actively used, and this same rule applied to land and crops.

    Groups and individuals exploited particular pieces of land and used violence or negotiation to exclude others. But the right to the use of land did not imply the right to its permanent possession. Native Americans had many ways of communicating, including graphic ones, and some of these artistic and communicative technologies are still used today. For example, Algonquian-speaking Ojibwes used birch-bark scrolls to record medical treatments, recipes, songs, stories, and more.

    Other Eastern Woodland peoples wove plant fibers, embroidered skins with porcupine quills, and modeled the earth to make sites of complex ceremonial meaning. On the Plains, artisans wove buffalo hair and painted on buffalo skins; in the Pacific Northwest, after the arrival of Europeans, weavers wove goat hair into soft textiles with particular patterns.

    Maya, Zapotec, and Nahua ancestors in Mesoamerica painted their histories on plant-derived textiles and carved them into stone. In the Andes, Inca recorders noted information in the form of knotted strings, or khipu.

    Native peoples in the Southwest began constructing these highly defensible cliff dwellings in CE and continued expanding and refurbishing them until CE before abandoning them around CE. Andreas F. Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3. As many as fifteen thousand individuals lived in the Chaco Canyon complex in present-day New Mexico. Massive residential structures, built from sandstone blocks and lumber carried across great distances, housed hundreds of Puebloan people.

    One building, Pueblo Bonito, stretched over two acres and rose five stories. Its six hundred rooms were decorated with copper bells, turquoise decorations, and bright macaws.

    Puebloan spirituality was tied both to the earth and the heavens, as generations carefully charted the stars and designed homes in line with the path of the sun and moon.

    An extreme fifty-year drought began in Shortly thereafter, Chaco Canyon was deserted. New groups, including the Apache and Navajo, entered the vacated territory and adopted several Puebloan customs. The same drought that plagued the Pueblo also likely affected the Mississippian peoples of the American Midwest and South. The Mississippians developed one of the largest civilizations north of modern-day Mexico.

    Roughly one thousand years ago, the largest Mississippian settlement, Cahokia, located just east of modern-day St. Louis, peaked at a population of between ten thousand and thirty thousand. It rivaled contemporary European cities in size.

    The city itself spanned two thousand acres and centered on Monks Mound, a large earthen hill that rose ten stories and was larger at its base than the pyramids of Egypt. As with many of the peoples who lived in the Woodlands, life and death in Cahokia were linked to the movement of the stars, sun, and moon, and their ceremonial earthwork structures reflect these important structuring forces.

    Cahokia was politically organized around chiefdoms, a hierarchical, clan-based system that gave leaders both secular and sacred authority. The size of the city and the extent of its influence suggest that the city relied on a number of lesser chiefdoms under the authority of a paramount leader.

    Social stratification was partly preserved through frequent warfare. War captives were enslaved, and these captives formed an important part of the economy in the North American Southeast. Native American slavery was not based on holding people as property. Instead, Native Americans understood the enslaved as people who lacked kinship networks.

    Slavery, then, was not always a permanent condition. Very often, a formerly enslaved person could become a fully integrated member of the community. Adoption or marriage could enable an enslaved person to enter a kinship network and join the community. Slavery and captive trading became an important way that many Native communities regrew and gained or maintained power. By , the once-powerful city had undergone a series of strains that led to collapse. Scholars previously pointed to ecological disaster or slow depopulation through emigration, but new research instead emphasizes mounting warfare, or internal political tensions.

    Environmental explanations suggest that population growth placed too great a burden on the arable land. Others suggest that the demand for fuel and building materials led to deforestation, erosion, and perhaps an extended drought. Recent evidence, including defensive stockades, suggests that political turmoil among the ruling elite and threats from external enemies may explain the end of the once-great civilization.

    Cahokia became a key trading center partly because of its position near the Mississippi, Illinois, and Missouri Rivers. These rivers created networks that stretched from the Great Lakes to the American Southeast.

    Archaeologists can identify materials, like seashells, that traveled over a thousand miles to reach the center of this civilization.

    At least 3, years ago, the community at what is now Poverty Point, Louisiana, had access to copper from present-day Canada and flint from modern-day Indiana. Sheets of mica found at the sacred Serpent Mound site near the Ohio River came from the Allegheny Mountains, and obsidian from nearby earthworks came from Mexico. Turquoise from the Greater Southwest was used at Teotihuacan years ago. In the Eastern Woodlands, many Native American societies lived in smaller, dispersed communities to take advantage of rich soils and abundant rivers and streams.

    Their hundreds of settlements, stretching from southern Massachusetts through Delaware, were loosely bound together by political, social, and spiritual connections.

    Beach erosion caused by coastal armoring and navigational inlets, artificial lighting and beach renourishment are all impacting once pristine beaches. These changes will likely have lasting effects on future nesting patterns. The more we understand about how, where and when sea turtles nest, the better we will be able to protect their nesting habitat. Beach Selection Most females return faithfully to the same beach each time they are ready to nest.

    Not only do they appear on the same beach, they often emerge within a few hundred yards of where they last nested. Nesting Behavior Only the females nest, and it occurs most often at night. The female crawls out of the ocean, pausing frequently as if carefully scoping out her spot. Sometimes she will crawl out of the ocean, but for unknown reasons decide not to nest.

    Most females nest at least twice during the nesting season, although individuals of some species may nest only once and others more than ten times. Sea turtles are generally slow and awkward on land, and nesting is exhausting work. Constructing the Nest The female turtle crawls to a dry part of the beach and begins to fling away loose sand with her flippers. After the body pit is complete, she digs an egg cavity using her cupped rear flippers as shovels.

    The egg cavity is shaped roughly like a tear drop and is usually tilted slightly. Laying and Burying the Eggs When the turtle has finished digging the egg chamber, she begins to lay eggs.

    Two or three eggs drop out at a time, with mucus being secreted throughout egg-laying. The average size of a clutch ranges from about 80 to eggs, depending on the species. Because the eggs are flexible, they do not break as they fall into the chamber.

    This flexibility also allows both the female and the nest to hold more eggs. Nesting sea turtles appear to shed tears, but the turtle is just secreting salt that accumulates in her body. Many people believe that while laying her eggs a sea turtles goes into a trance from which she can not be disturbed. This is not entirely true. A sea turtle is least likely to abandon nesting when she is laying her eggs, but some turtles will abort the process if they are harassed or feel they are in danger.

    For this reason, it is important that sea turtles are never disturbed during nesting. Once all the eggs are in the chamber, the mother turtle uses her rear flippers to push sand over the top of the egg cavity. Gradually, she packs the sand down over the top and then begins using her front flippers to refill the body pit and disguise the nest. By throwing sand in all directions, it is much harder for predators to find the eggs.

    After the nest is thoroughly concealed, the female crawls back to the sea to rest before nesting again later that season or before beginning her migration back to her feeding ground.

    Once a female has left her nest, she never returns to tend it. Incubation Incubation takes about 60 days, but since the temperature of the sand governs the speed at which the embryos develop, the hatching period can cover a broad range.

    Essentially, the hotter the sand surrounding the nest, the faster the embryos will develop. Cooler sand has a tendency to produce more males, with warmer sand producing a higher ratio of females. Emerging from the Nest Unlike baby alligators, which are liberated from their nest by their mother, sea turtle hatchlings must do it all themselves. Digging out of the nest is a group effort that can take several days. Hatchlings usually emerge from their nest at night or during a rainstorm when temperatures are cooler.

    Once they decide to burst out, they erupt from the nest cavity as a group. The little turtles orient themselves to the brightest horizon, and then dash toward the sea. She removes the dry surface sand beneath her, which will later be used to cover the egg chamber. Once she has created a body pit, she begins to dig an egg chamber using her rear flippers, alternating between the right and left flipper to scoops out the damp sand.

    When she can reach no deeper, she pauses and begins contractions, her rear flippers rising off the sand. Soon she begins laying eggs. Following each contraction, the female turtle will drop between one and four eggs in quick succession. The eggs will whirlpool wsf26c3exf01 diagnostic mode fill the chamber.

    Once her clutch is complete, she closes the nest using her rear flippers in a similar way to digging her egg chamber, just in reverse. She places sand on top of the chamber, until the eggs are completely covered. She gently pats the damp sand on top of her eggs, using the underside of her shell plastron. The camouflaging process now begins. Slowly moving forward, she throws dry, surface sand behind her. This is an colorbond corner flashing bunnings to conceal the location of her eggs from predators.

    She may move forward while she is doing this. When she is done, she heads down the beach and returns to sea. Back to top 3. How many eggs do sea turtles lay? The number of eggs in a nest, called a clutch, varies by species. In addition, sea turtles may lay more than one clutch during a nesting season. On average, sea turtles lay eggs in a nest, and average between 2 to 8 nests a season. The smallest clutches are laid by Flatback turtles, approximately 50 eggs per clutch.

    The largest clutches are laid by hawksbills, which may lay over eggs in a nest. Back to top 4. What do sea turtle eggs look like? They are the size and shape of ping-pong balls with a soft shell. Usually eggs are spherical in shape, although occasionally, they are misshaped elongated or adjoined with calcium strands.

    Some sea turtles lay small infertile eggs, which only contain albumin egg white. The Leatherback turtle lays some of these infertile eggs in every clutch, but the other species of sea turtle lay these eggs infrequently. Back to top 5. What determines the sex of a sea turtle?

    Warmer temperatures produce mostly females, and cooler temperatures produce a majority of males. There is a pivotal temperature that produces an equal ratio of males and females.

    The temperature determining sex ratio differs between species and nest locations. Back to top 6. Do mother turtles attend to their nests? Once a nest has been completed, the female never returns to it. The eggs and resulting hatchlings are left to fend for themselves and locate the water upon emerging.

    Back to top 7. Why do hatchlings emerge together? Because hatchlings are small and the egg chambers are deep, it is almost impossible for a single hatchling to escape from the chamber alone. As hatchlings break free from their shell inside the egg chamber, they stimulate other hatchlings to emerge from their eggs too. Once most hatchlings have emerged from their shells, they climb on top of the discarded eggshells to propel themselves to the top of the chamber.

    The hatchlings near the top of the egg chamber scratch down sand from above and around them. They emerge either en masse or in small groups. Emerging together increases the chance of survival as many hatchlings can overwhelm would-be predators. A single hatchling would be an easy target.

    Back to top 8. Why do some researchers say there are seven species of sea turtles and some say there are eight species? The difference in number is based on whether or not the black sea turtle is a separate species from the green sea turtle. The debate centers on the genetic difference between the green sea turtle and the black sea turtle. Most sea turtle researchers believe that the black sea turtle should be called the Pacific green turtle because it is a sub-species of the green sea turtle and, as a result, has almost identical genetic traits.

    The rich soil and use of hand tools enabled effective and sustainable farming practices, producing high yields without overburdening the soil. Agriculture allowed for dramatic social change, but for some, it also may have accompanied a decline in health.

    Analysis of remains reveals that societies transitioning to agriculture often experienced weaker bones and teeth. Farmers could produce more powershell websocket than hunters, enabling some members of the community to pursue other skills.

    Religious leaders, skilled soldiers, and artists could devote their energy to activities other than food production.

    Spiritual practices, understandings of property, and kinship networks differed markedly from European arrangements. Most Native Americans did not neatly distinguish between the natural and the supernatural. Spiritual power permeated their world and was both tangible and accessible. It could be appealed to and harnessed. Kinship bound most Native North American people together.

    Most people lived in small communities tied by kinship networks. Many Native cultures understood ancestry as matrilineal: family and clan identity proceeded along the female line, through mothers and daughters, rather than fathers and sons. Native American culture, meanwhile, generally afforded greater sexual and marital freedom than European cultures. Native Americans generally felt a personal ownership of tools, weapons, or other items that were actively used, and this same rule applied to land and crops.

    Groups and individuals exploited particular pieces of land and used violence or negotiation to exclude others. But the right to the use of land did not imply the right to its permanent possession. Native Americans had many ways of communicating, including graphic ones, and some of these artistic and communicative technologies are still used today.

    For example, Algonquian-speaking Ojibwes used birch-bark scrolls to record medical treatments, recipes, songs, stories, and more.

    Other Eastern Woodland peoples wove plant fibers, embroidered skins with porcupine quills, and modeled the earth to make sites of complex ceremonial meaning. On the Plains, artisans wove buffalo hair and painted on buffalo skins; in the Pacific Northwest, after the arrival of Europeans, weavers wove goat hair into soft textiles with particular patterns. Maya, Zapotec, and Nahua ancestors in Mesoamerica painted their histories on plant-derived textiles and carved them into stone.

    In the Andes, Inca recorders noted information in the form of knotted strings, or khipu. Native peoples in the Southwest began constructing these highly defensible cliff dwellings in CE and continued expanding and refurbishing them until CE before abandoning them around CE.

    Andreas F. Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3. As many as fifteen thousand individuals lived in the Chaco Canyon complex in present-day New Mexico. Massive residential structures, built from sandstone blocks and lumber carried across great distances, housed hundreds of Puebloan people.

    One building, Pueblo Bonito, stretched over two acres and rose five stories. Its six hundred rooms were decorated with copper bells, turquoise decorations, and bright macaws.

    Puebloan spirituality was tied both to the earth and the heavens, as generations carefully charted the stars and designed homes in line with the path of the sun and moon. An extreme fifty-year drought began in Shortly thereafter, Chaco Canyon was deserted. New groups, including the Apache and Navajo, entered the vacated territory and adopted several Puebloan customs.

    The same drought that plagued the Pueblo also likely affected the Mississippian peoples of the American Midwest and South. The Mississippians developed one of the largest civilizations north of modern-day Mexico. Roughly one thousand years ago, the largest Mississippian settlement, Cahokia, located just east of modern-day St. Louis, peaked at a population of between ten thousand and thirty thousand. It rivaled contemporary European cities in size. The city itself spanned two thousand acres and centered on Monks Mound, a large earthen hill that rose ten stories and was larger at its base than the pyramids of Egypt.

    As with many of the peoples who lived in the Woodlands, life and death in Cahokia were linked to the movement of the stars, sun, and moon, and their ceremonial earthwork structures reflect these important structuring forces. Cahokia was politically organized around chiefdoms, a hierarchical, clan-based system that gave leaders both secular and sacred authority.

    The size of the city and the extent of its influence suggest that the city relied on a number of lesser chiefdoms under the authority of a paramount leader.

    Social stratification was partly preserved through frequent warfare. War captives were enslaved, and these captives formed an important part of the economy in the North American Southeast. Native American slavery was not based on holding people as property.

    Instead, Native Americans understood the enslaved as people who lacked kinship networks. Slavery, then, was not always a permanent condition. Very often, a formerly enslaved person could become a fully integrated member of the community. Adoption or marriage could enable an enslaved person to enter a kinship network and join the community.

    Slavery and captive trading became an important way that many Native communities regrew and gained or maintained power. Bythe once-powerful city had undergone a series of strains that led to collapse. Scholars previously pointed to ecological disaster or slow depopulation through emigration, but new research instead emphasizes mounting warfare, or internal political tensions.

    Environmental explanations suggest that population growth placed too great a burden on the arable land. Others suggest that the demand for fuel and building materials led to deforestation, erosion, and perhaps an extended drought. Recent evidence, including defensive stockades, suggests that political turmoil among the ruling elite and threats from external enemies may explain the end of the once-great civilization.

    Cahokia became a key trading center partly because of its position near the Mississippi, Illinois, and Missouri Rivers. These rivers created networks that stretched from the Great Lakes to the American Southeast. Archaeologists can identify materials, like seashells, that traveled over a thousand miles to reach the center of this civilization.

    At least 3, years ago, the community at what is now Poverty Point, Louisiana, had access to copper from present-day Canada and flint from modern-day Indiana. Sheets of mica found at the sacred Serpent Mound site near the Ohio River came from the Allegheny Mountains, and obsidian from nearby earthworks came from Mexico. Turquoise from the Greater Southwest was used at Teotihuacan years ago. In the Eastern Woodlands, many Native American societies lived in smaller, dispersed communities to take advantage of rich soils and abundant rivers and streams.

    Their hundreds of settlements, stretching from southern Massachusetts through Delaware, were loosely bound together by political, social, and spiritual connections. Dispersed and relatively independent, Lenape communities were bound together by oral histories, ceremonial traditions, consensus-based political organization, kinship networks, and a shared clan system.

    Kinship tied the various Lenape communities and clans together, and society was organized along matrilineal lines. Marriage occurred between clans, and a married man joined the clan of his wife. Lenape women wielded authority over marriages, households, and agricultural production and may even have played a significant part in determining the selection of leaders, called sachems.

    Dispersed authority, small settlements, and kin-based organization contributed to the long-lasting stability and resilience of Lenape communities.

    Lenape sachems acquired their authority by demonstrating wisdom and experience.

    1. Indigenous America

    This differed from the hierarchical organization of many Mississippian cultures. Large gatherings did exist, however, as dispersed communities and their leaders gathered for ceremonial purposes or to make big decisions. Sachems spoke for their people in larger councils that included men, women, and elders. The Lenapes experienced occasional tensions with other Indigenous groups like the Iroquois to the north or the Susquehannock to the south, but the lack of defensive fortifications near Lenape communities convinced archaeologists that the Lenapes avoided large-scale warfare.

    The continued longevity of Lenape societies, which began centuries before European contact, was also due to their skills as farmers and fishers. Along with the Three Sisters, Lenape women planted tobacco, sunflowers, and gourds. They harvested fruits and nuts from trees and cultivated numerous medicinal plants, which they used with great proficiency.

    The Lenapes organized their communities to take advantage of growing seasons and the migration patterns of animals and fowl that were a part of their diet. During planting and harvesting seasons, Lenapes gathered rcbo wiring installation larger groups to coordinate their labor and take advantage of local abundance.

    As proficient fishers, they organized seasonal fish camps to net shellfish and catch shad. Lenapes wove nets, baskets, mats, and a variety of household materials from the rushes found along the streams, rivers, and coasts. They made their homes in some of the most fertile and abundant lands in the Eastern Woodlands and used their skills to create a stable and prosperous civilization.

    The first Dutch and Swedish settlers who encountered the Lenapes in the seventeenth century recognized Lenape prosperity and quickly sought their friendship. Their lives came to depend on it. The peoples of this region depended on salmon for survival and valued it accordingly.

    Images of salmon decorated totem poles, baskets, canoes, oars, and other tools. The fish was treated with spiritual respect and its image represented prosperity, life, and renewal. Sustainable harvesting practices ensured the survival of salmon populations. The Coast Salish people and several others celebrated the First Salmon Ceremony when the first migrating salmon was spotted each season. Elders closely observed the size of the salmon run and delayed harvesting to ensure that a sufficient number survived to spawn and return in the future.

    Massive cedar canoes, as long as fifty feet and carrying as many as twenty men, also enabled extensive fishing expeditions in the Pacific Ocean, where skilled fishermen caught halibut, sturgeon, and other fish, sometimes hauling thousands of pounds in a single canoe. The combination of population density and surplus food created a unique social organization centered on elaborate feasts, called potlatches.

    These potlatches celebrated births and weddings and determined social status. The party lasted for days and hosts demonstrated their wealth and power by entertaining guests with food, artwork, and performances. The more the hosts gave away, the more prestige and power they had within the group. Some men saved for decades to host an extravagant potlatch that would in turn give him greater respect and power within the community.

    Intricately carved masks, like the Crooked Beak of Heaven Mask, used natural elements such as animals to represent supernatural forces during ceremonial dances and festivals. Creative Commons Attribution 3. Despite commonalities, Native cultures varied greatly. The New World was marked by diversity and contrast. Some lived in cities, others in small bands. Some migrated seasonally; others settled permanently. All Native peoples had long histories and well-formed, unique cultures that developed over millennia.

    But the arrival of Europeans changed everything. At their peak they sailed as far east as Constantinople and raided settlements as far south as North Africa. They established limited colonies in Iceland and Greenland and, around the yearLeif Erikson reached Newfoundland in present-day Canada.

    But the Norse colony failed. Culturally and geographically isolated, the Norse were driven back to the sea by some combination of limited resources, inhospitable weather, food shortages, and Native resistance. Then, centuries before Columbus, the Crusades linked Europe with the wealth, power, and knowledge of Asia.

    Europeans rediscovered or adopted Greek, Roman, and Muslim knowledge. The hemispheric dissemination of goods and knowledge not only sparked the Renaissance but fueled long-term European expansion. Asian goods flooded European markets, creating a demand for new commodities. This trade created vast new wealth, and Europeans battled one another for trade supremacy. European nation-states consolidated under the authority of powerful kings.

    In Spain, the marriage of Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile consolidated the two most powerful kingdoms of the Iberian peninsula. The Crusades had never ended in Iberia: the Spanish crown concluded centuries of intermittent warfare—the Reconquista—by expelling Muslim Moors and Iberian Jews from the Iberian peninsula injust as Christopher Columbus sailed west.

    With new power, these new nations—and their newly empowered monarchs—yearned to access the wealth of Asia. Seafaring Italian traders commanded the Mediterranean and controlled trade with Asia. Spain and Portugal, at the edges of Europe, relied on middlemen and paid higher prices for Asian goods. They sought a more direct route. And so they looked to the Atlantic. Portugal invested heavily in exploration.

    From his estate on the Sagres Peninsula of Portugal, a rich sailing port, Prince Henry the Navigator Infante Henry, Duke of Viseu invested in research and technology and underwrote many technological breakthroughs. His investments bore fruit. In the fifteenth century, Portuguese sailors perfected the astrolabe, a tool to calculate latitude, and the caravel, a ship well suited for ocean exploration.

    Both were technological breakthroughs. The astrolabe allowed for precise navigation, and the caravel, unlike more common vessels designed for trading on the relatively placid Mediterranean, was a rugged ship with a deep draft capable of making lengthy voyages on the open ocean and, equally important, carrying large amounts of cargo while doing so. Georg Braun Cologne: Blending economic and religious motivations, the Portuguese established forts along the Atlantic coast of Africa during the fifteenth century, inaugurating centuries of European colonization there.


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