Panamax size


  • A guide to Bulk Carriers Types for Agricultural Commodities
  • Ship types according to their size
  • Panamax of the Week
  • The Ultimate Guide to Ship Sizes
  • Evolution of Containerships
  • Panamax and beyond: the story of ship sizes
  • A guide to Bulk Carriers Types for Agricultural Commodities

    Feb 4, Commodity Trading Reading time: 8 minutes Bulk carriers are the main means of transportation for dry agricultural commodities, such as Corn, Wheat, or Soybean. Bulk carriers come in various sizes and cover routes across the world.

    As the shortest route is always the best, bulk carriers may have to pass through canals, limiting their maximum size. Furthermore, ports also have a maximum carrier size they can accommodate. These particularities can also be advantageous depending on the route length or the execution volume wanted. However, they can also operate internationally in cabotage trading, in which a country allows vessels from a foreign company to sail and participate in trading in their domestic waters.

    This usually arises from joint agreements between nations or when a charter permits foreign participation. Thus, Coasters are essential to coastline trading for countries, notoriously so when domestic waters cover a large geographical area.

    As such, they restrict to a draft between 3 to 6 meters. They also have a low Deadweight minimum and maximum — carrying as little as 1, and as much as 15, DWT cargo -varying between regions. Handysize Bulk Carriers Handysize bulk carriers are larger than Coasters and can work for deep-sea trading, meaning they can operate across large seas.

    As the definition is not exact, it can also incorporate Handymax or even Supramax vessels. The main feature of Handysize type carriers is that they have a shallower draft than other large carriers and cranes built-in.

    Therefore, they can operate in most ports and terminals, making them the most versatile class of carriers. In fact, most vessels with 10, DWT or more are made up of Handysize carriers. Indeed, they are the most extensive fleet type globally, with more than units across the world in Handysize ships are capable of transporting cargo from 15, to 35, DWT. Due to the broad definition of the vessel classification, it can also refer to vessels capable of up to 60, DWT.

    They can fit different cargoes in their multiple holds. This measure can change to fit certain bulk terminal restrictions. For example, Japanese ports can accommodate Handymax vessels up to m in length. As part of the handy class, they also have a shallower draft, allowing them to fit in most ports and terminals.

    Modern Handymax ships are built with five cargo holds and four cranes of around 30 tonnes working load, allowing them to accommodate ports or terminals with limited infrastructure. These modern Handymax carriers are capable of transporting a total cargo of 52, to 58, DWT.

    They have the same construction as Handymax Bulk Carriers but on the larger side. With their cargo holds capable of containing up to 60, DWT, they are close to the largest class covered in this article: Panamax.

    Panamax Bulk Carriers Panamax carriers are the only class carriers that correspond to an actual geographical limitation. Indeed they are meant to fit within basins and locks throughout the Panama Canal in Central America.

    As such, these ships have precise dimensions they need to fit. Panamax vessels have to have a maximum length of As such, they can fit between 60, to 80, DWT dry bulk cargo, making them one the largest carriers for dry bulk and the largest class in this article. Since , new locks and canal sizes allow for larger ships, called New Panamax or Post Panamax.

    Thus, they have new maximum dimensions and can fit vessels of up to m 1, ft in length, 49 m This data holds insight into how the carriers are used — depending on the regions — both for cargo weight and commodities. This implies quotes for singular bulkheads.

    Some other insightful views of the data are the commodity and export country distributions for bulk carrier types. This goes along with the fact that both Handymax and Supramax vessels are from the same builds and imply similar geographical coverage.

    The dataset also shows that all the data available at AgFlow for bulk Coaster carriers originate from three different countries, namely Russia, Ukraine, and Kazakhstan.

    That implies that these Coaster vessels probably operate in cabotage trading within the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea. While this data and those percentages are not absolute, they reveal the difference in usage of the different types of bulk carriers.

    Moreover, freight rates also vary with bulk carrier types as well. Logically, the larger the vessel, the higher the price. However, this hierarchy is not necessarily respected when comparing two different export ports in time.

    Thus leading to better executions possible. Conclusion Agricultural commodities bulk carrier types come in various forms, each one corresponding to a specific need. This could be for short-sea trading and cabotage with Coasters ships, a versatile and accommodating vessel with Handysize, Handymax or even Supramax carriers, or heavy cargoes for deep-sea trading with Panamax vessels. Moreover, it also showed that bulk carrier types have a spread in price which hierarchy can change in time with events.

    Therefore, this similitude in distribution indicates that deep-sea trading is relatively similar globally and a well-oiled machine. Nonetheless, Freight rates for Bulk Carriers are actually more dependent on routes, vessel sizes, and market events. Access Best Execution for.

    Ship types according to their size

    LOA: Length overall. The loads displayed on deck represent maximal possible loads, which would involve a large share of empty containers. The loads are usually 1 to 3 containers less in height. Containerships usually carry fewer containers because of weight restrictions and lack of demand on certain routes. Since the beginning of containerization in the mids, containerships undertook six general waves of changes, each representing new generations of containerships: A Early containerships.

    The first generation of containerships was composed of modified bulk vessels or tankers that could transport up to 1, TEUs. At the beginning of the s, the container was an untested transport technology and reconverting existing ships proved to be of lower costs and less risky.

    These ships were carrying onboard cranes since most port terminals were not equipped to handle containers. They were also relatively slow, with speeds of about 18 to 20 knots, and could only carry containers on the converted decks and not in their bellyhold.

    Once the container began to be massively adopted at the beginning of the s, the construction of the first fully cellular containerships FCC; second generation entirely dedicated to handling containers started. The first cellular containerships, called the C7 class, were introduced in Cellular containership also offers the advantage of using the whole ship to stack containers, including below deck.

    Usually, an extra of two containers in width can be carried above deck than below deck. Cranes were removed from the ship design so that more containers could be carried cranes remain today on some specialized containerships. The ability of ports to handle cellular containerships ceased to be a major concern with the setting of specialized container terminals worldwide. Cellular containerships were also much faster with speeds of knots, which would become the speed of reference in containerized shipping.

    B Panamax. During the s, economies of scale rapidly pushed for the construction of larger containerships; the larger the number of containers being carried the lower the costs per TEU. The process became a virtuous circle, compounding larger volumes and lower costs, which significantly helped the diffusion of the container. The size limit of the Panama Canal, which came to be known as the Panamax standard, was achieved in with a capacity of about 4, TEUs.

    Once this limit was achieved, a decade passed before a new generation of larger containerships was designed.

    Going beyond Panamax was perceived as a risk in terms of the configuration of shipping networks, additional handling infrastructure as well as draft limitations at ports. The APL C10 containership class, with a capacity of 4, TEUs, was introduced in and was the first containership class to exceed the By , full-fledged Post Panamax containerships were introduced with capacities reaching 6, TEUs. The first Post-Panamax ship classes were not much longer than the Panamax class, but wider, making them more efficient.

    A ship above the Panamax size requires a substantial amount of cargo to be used profitably along a service loop and by the late s, the rapid growth of global trade made such a ship class a marketable proposition. Post Panamax containerships triggered an infrastructure challenge for many ports since they require deeper drafts at least 43 feet and highly efficient, but costly, portainers having wider reaches.

    Draft constraints became a factor placing pressures on ports to dredge to accommodate post-Panamax containerships. This refers to ships designed to fit exactly in the locks of the expanded Panama Canal, which opened in June These ships have a capacity of about 12, TEU, but there are several configurations of Neo-Panamax ships in terms of length 17 to 22 bays and width 19 or 20 containers across.

    Like its Panamax counterparts, Neo-Panamax ships are likely to define a specific ship class able to service the Americas and the Caribbean, either from Europe or Asia. Neo-Panamax ships are likely to become the new standard in port infrastructure design for decades to come. By , the third generation of post-Panamax containerships came online when Maersk shipping line introduced a ship class with a capacity in the range of 11, to 14, TEUs; the Emma Maersk E Class. They were dubbed Very Large Containerships since they are bigger than the specifications of the expanded Panama Canal.

    This class was further expanded, and by , ships above 20, TEUs started to be delivered. An additional expansion in introduced ships of 24 containers across and with 24 bays, dubbed Megamax MGX It remains to be seen which routes and ports these ships would service, but they are limited mostly to routes between Asia and Europe. Containership speeds have peaked to an average of 20 to 25 knots, and it is unlikely that speeds will increase due to energy consumption; many shipping lines are opting for slow steaming to cope with higher bunker fuel prices when there are market spikes and overcapacity to have more ships in a slower service.

    The deployment of a class of fast containerships has remained on the drawing boards because the speed advantages they would confer would not compensate for the much higher shipping costs. Supply chains have been synchronized with container shipping speeds, and the setting of landbridges, such as the Eurasian landbridge , is offering a competitive service for time-sensitive cargoes.

    Each subsequent generation of containership faces a shrinking number of harbors able to handle them and place pressures on port infrastructure and equipment.

    Maritime shipping companies are incited to use the largest containerships possible on their shipping routes since they benefit from economies of scale. However, ports and inland transportation systems must provide substantial capital investment if they expect to accommodate larger containerships. Thus, operational limitations are to deploy ships bigger than 8, TEU in terms of ports of call and the required infrastructure to provide an acceptable loading and unloading throughput.

    Also, large containership deployments require a substantial amount of cargo to be commercially feasible, such as adequate service frequency. Containerships in the range of 5, to 6, TEU appear to be the most flexible in terms of the ports they can access and the market they can service since using larger ships require fewer port calls.

    Therefore, limits to economies of scale in container shipping are much more limited by commercial attributes than by technical constraints. Share this:.

    Panamax of the Week

    Once the container began to be massively adopted at the beginning of the s, the construction of the first fully cellular containerships FCC; second generation entirely dedicated to handling containers started.

    The Ultimate Guide to Ship Sizes

    The first cellular containerships, called the C7 class, were introduced in Cellular containership also offers the advantage of using the whole ship to stack containers, including below deck. Usually, an extra of two containers in width can be carried above deck than below deck. Cranes were removed from the ship design so that more containers could be carried cranes remain today on some specialized containerships. The ability of ports to handle cellular containerships ceased to be a major concern with the setting of specialized container terminals worldwide.

    Cellular containerships were also much faster with speeds of knots, which would become the speed of reference in containerized shipping. B Panamax. During the s, economies of scale rapidly pushed for the construction of larger containerships; the larger the number of containers being carried the lower the costs per TEU. The process became a virtuous circle, compounding larger volumes and lower costs, which significantly helped the diffusion of the container.

    The size limit of the Panama Canal, which came to be known as the Panamax standard, was achieved in with a capacity of about 4, TEUs. Once this limit was achieved, a decade passed before a new generation of larger containerships was designed.

    Evolution of Containerships

    Going beyond Panamax was perceived as a risk in terms of the configuration of shipping networks, additional handling infrastructure as well as draft limitations at ports.

    The APL C10 containership class, with a capacity of 4, TEUs, was introduced in and was the first containership class to exceed the Byfull-fledged Post Panamax containerships were introduced with capacities reaching 6, TEUs. The first Post-Panamax ship classes were not much longer than the Panamax class, but wider, making them more efficient. A ship above the Panamax size requires a substantial amount of cargo to be used profitably along a service loop and by the late s, the rapid growth of global trade made such a ship class a marketable proposition.

    Post Panamax containerships triggered an infrastructure challenge for many ports since they require deeper drafts at least 43 feet and highly efficient, but costly, portainers having wider reaches. Draft constraints became a factor placing pressures on ports to dredge to accommodate post-Panamax containerships.

    This refers to ships designed to fit exactly in the locks of the expanded Panama Canal, which opened in June These ships have a capacity of about 12, TEU, but there are several configurations of Neo-Panamax ships in terms of length 17 to 22 bays and width 19 or 20 containers across. Like its Panamax counterparts, Neo-Panamax ships are likely to define a specific ship class able to service the Americas and the Caribbean, either from Europe or Asia. Neo-Panamax ships are likely to become the new standard in port infrastructure design for decades to come.

    Bythe third generation of post-Panamax containerships came online when Maersk shipping line introduced a ship class with a capacity in the range of 11, to 14, TEUs; the Emma Maersk E Class.

    Panamax and beyond: the story of ship sizes

    These modern Handymax carriers are capable of transporting a total cargo of 52, to 58, DWT. They have the same construction as Handymax Bulk Carriers but on the larger side.

    With their cargo holds capable of containing up to 60, DWT, they are close to the largest class covered in this article: Panamax. Panamax Bulk Carriers Panamax carriers are the only class carriers that correspond to an actual geographical limitation.

    Indeed they are meant to fit within basins and locks throughout the Panama Canal in Central America. As such, these ships have precise dimensions they need to fit. Panamax vessels have to have a maximum length of As such, they can fit between 60, to 80, DWT dry bulk cargo, making them one the largest carriers for dry bulk and the largest class in this article. Sincenew locks and canal sizes allow for larger ships, called New Panamax or Post Panamax. Thus, they have new maximum dimensions and can fit vessels of up to m 1, ft in length, 49 m This data holds insight into how the carriers are used — depending on the regions — both for cargo weight and commodities.

    This implies quotes for singular bulkheads. Some other insightful views of the data are the commodity and export country distributions for bulk carrier types. This goes along with the fact that both Handymax and Supramax vessels are from the same builds and imply similar geographical coverage.

    The dataset also shows that all the data available at AgFlow for bulk Coaster carriers originate from three different countries, namely Russia, Ukraine, and Kazakhstan. That implies that these Coaster vessels probably operate in cabotage trading within the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea. While this data and those percentages are not absolute, they reveal the difference in usage of the different types of bulk carriers. Moreover, freight rates also vary with bulk carrier types as well.

    Logically, the larger the vessel, the higher the price. However, this hierarchy is not necessarily respected when comparing two different export ports in time. Thus leading to better executions possible. Conclusion Agricultural commodities bulk carrier types come in various forms, each one corresponding to a specific need. This could be for short-sea trading and cabotage with Coasters ships, a versatile and accommodating vessel with Handysize, Handymax or even Supramax carriers, or heavy cargoes for deep-sea trading with Panamax vessels.

    Moreover, it also showed that bulk carrier types have a spread in price which hierarchy can change in time with events. Therefore, this similitude in distribution indicates that deep-sea trading is relatively similar globally and a well-oiled machine.


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