Pmk glycidate effects


  • There’s a simple reason Ecstasy pills are so insanely strong this year
  • Global Drug Survey Warns It’s the “Worst Time in a Generation” to Take MDMA
  • Plenary: Item 9. Implementation of the international drug control treaties (cont.)
  • Plenary: Item 9. Implementation of the international drug control treaties cont. March 19, Chair: We will now continue our consideration of Agenda Item 9. The Commission is invited to carry out its treaty mandated provisions.

    This morning, we will first consider Item a Changes in the scope of control of substances. The CoW will be suspended during consideration of this item. We will, during the meeting today, proceed considering draft decision L10 entitled Changes in the scope of control of substances — Proposed scheduling recommendations of cannabis and cannabis-related substances.

    One notification informed about the review of 10 new psychoactive substances and two pain relieving medicines. In this regard, the ECDD made scheduling recommendations on 4 fentanyls and 5 synthetic cannabinoids.

    The contents of the recommendations were already presented orally by the representative of the WHO at the reconvened. Concerning the review of cannabis and cannabis related substances, the ECDD made several recommendations. They were not presented during the reconvened as they awaited clearance. They were formally shared as notes verbales in February. States were requested to submit comments to the Secretariat.

    The recommendations and comments submitted by States by 28 February are available to the Commission. After receiving the two notifications, a number of delegations expressed concern that not enough time was available to prepare the voting during this session of the commission.

    Considering that complex domestic procedures would need to be completed based on the recommendations. The extended bureau discussed this. The regional groups were consulted. During the discussion, reference was made to CND resolution from Procedure to be followed by the CND in matters of scheduling of narcotic drug and psychoactive substances , which requests WHO to forward recommendations at least three months prior to the commission session at which the recommendations could first be examined.

    At its intersessional meeting in February, the CND agreed on the recommendation of Extended Bureau concerning procedural recommendations to postpone vote. It was agreed upon by the meeting of the Extended Bureau that the procedural resolution will be taken up after the voting today. We will first proceed to the scheduling recommendations of the following under and conventions.

    Secretariat: The CND has before, a document concerning the vote. A series of countries sent comments, including Bhutan, Bolivia, and Indonesia. The Commission will act by consensus to decide whether a vote is to be taken. For convention, a simple majority.

    In terms of the voting itself, in according to Rule 59 of the rules of procedure; the voting is conducting by showing of hands. Members in favour will be asked to raise their plates. Following that, those against will be asked. Only 53 countries members of the CND are invited to vote.

    The scheduling decision will be manifested immediately and then the CND will consider another. It appears in powder, tablets, nasal spray and vaping. It produces opioid like effects like analgesia. Potency between morphine and fentanyl. Significant potential for dependence and likelihood of abuse. Typical opioid adverse effects related to respiratory depressing. It has caused substantial harm and has no therapeutic use.

    Similar potential for abuse and effects of substances in Schedule I. Chair: I invite the CND to take a vote. Simple majority needed. I call only the members of the commission in favour to raise their plates and keep them raised until their name is called out: Afghanistan,.

    Chair: Members of the commission not in favour? Chair: Members abstaining? Potential for dependence and likelihood of abuse. Typical opioid adverse effects including respiratory depression. Substantial harm and no therapeutic effect. Similar to opioids in Schedule I, recommend to schedule Schedule I Chair: In favour? Powders, liquid and table. Analgesia higher to morphine, close to fentanyl.

    High potential for abuse and dependence. Most serious adverse effect is respiratory depression; in overdose can lead to death. Consistent with opioid action. Significant risk to public health and no therapeutic use. Similar to opioids in Schedule I, so recommendation Schedule I Chair: Members of the Commission not in favour? Powders, liquid and tabletas. Opioid action and effects. Use associated with large number of deaths. For most, principal substance. No known therapeutic use, substantial harms.

    Potential for similar abuse and ill effects to opioids in Schedule I, so recommendation Schedule I Chair: Moving on to Convention. Effects like other synthetic cannabinoids. Similar mechanism of action to other Schedule II synthetic cannabinoids.

    Severe adverse effects. No therapeutic use. Recognising abuse and therapeutic use, recommendation Schedule II of I call those in favour. Severe adverse effects, including deaths. Smoked or inhaled. Similar effects and mechanism of action to other Schedule II synthetic cannabinoids. In Europe, most frequently seized. Evidence with fatal and nonfatal intoxication. Substantial harm. Smoked in plant material sprayed with substance or inhaled.

    Among the most potent. Mode of action with high likelihood of dependence and abuse. Severe intoxications and deaths. Causes harm. Recommendation Schedule II of Psychomotor stimulant effects, paranoia, tachychardia, consistent with other synthetic cathinones and not dissimilar to cocaine.

    Evidence of use in many countries in various regions. Fatal and nonfatal intoxications. Substantial harm and no therapeutic usefulness. Recommendation to list Schedule II No known legitimate use nor regularly traded.

    The first two substances are very closely related to MDMA. PMK is not part of the drug convention. The board find that both chemicals are highly suitable for the illicit manufacturing of precursors for MDMA. The board recommends all stereoisomers be placed in table 1 of the UN convention against illicit drug trafficking in narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances, Then I invite the CND to take a vote.

    There is no known legitimate use and recommends adding APAA to table 1 of the convention. Chair: No comments? Hydroiodic acid Chair: As mentioned before, the government of Argentina proposed that apart from APAA and the other two substances, another substance hydroioidic acid. We will hear the advice of the INCB. INCB: The board suggest the substance Hydriodic acid can be used to create methamphetamines and amphetamines, though it should not be classified in the convention — due to other substances being available on the market that are cheaper and perform the same role.

    It also is seen to have legitimate medicinal uses in anaesthetics and research — the scheduling of this substance would not affect the production of illicit drugs therefore recommends it not be scheduled into the act.

    There are a number of drugs in the phenethylamine group, with similar molecular structures and some similar effects; including MDA methylenedioxyamphetamine , MDEA methylenedioxyethylamphetamine and MBDB N-methyl 1,3-benzodioxolyl butanamine. MDMA was first synthesised in by the Merck pharmaceutical company. During this early phase, an estimated half a million doses were administered in psychotherapeutic settings alone in North America, despite the absence of rigorous clinical trials to establish safety and efficacy.

    In the early s, MDMA had also begun to establish itself amongst some more niche US party scenes — including the Deadheads followers of the Grateful Dead , the Chicago house music scene, and some localised gay scenes, notably in Texas.

    But it achieved a dramatically higher profile when it became closely associated with the emergent European rave party scene in the late s — establishing a connection with underground and then mainstream electronic dance and club culture that continues to the present day. Hosted in ad-hoc venues including warehouses, barns, fields and other semi-derelict and outdoor spaces often lacking alcohol sales and marketing , MDMA became the drug of choice. Pills were relatively easy to transport and produced effects that suited the all-night party scene.

    As it became more mainstream in the late s and early s, the new dance music culture became more commercialised, as entrepreneurs moved to exploit an increasingly lucrative opportunity.

    The popularisation of the dance scene was partly the familiar movement of a subculture into the mainstream, with the predictable commercial exploitation that follows. However, it also occurred despite being accompanied by determined efforts at suppression driven not only by the kind of moral panic that often accompanies the emergence of new drug cultures, but by a commercial targeting of the culture by the alcohol industry.

    In the UK, for example, while the notorious Criminal Justice and Public Order Act sought to suppress free raves see below , alcohol venues — both bars and nightclubs — began to target the new market through both redesigning venues to include dancefloors, DJs, club-style lighting etc.

    While relatively small in number, MDMA-related deaths received hugely disproportionate media coverage compared with deaths related to other drugs — and especially compared to alcohol.

    On the one hand, pragmatic harm reduction approaches emerged, focusing on creating safer party environments and distributing information encouraging safer behaviours and patterns of use. Legislative action was also taken to curtail MDMA-driven raves. In the UK, the Criminal Justice and Public Order Act created police powers to remove ravers, prevent entry to suspected raves and to confiscate sound equipment.

    Trip to Hell. The Sun 2 November. The primary effect of such responses was less to suppress rave culture, than to accelerate the movement of the culture into commercialised club spaces. By the s, the industry could be described as having become fully globalised, especially under the EDM electronic dance music moniker, with club sizes growing enormously, whole destinations emerging as venues for dance tourism, festivals appearing across the world, and events growing to encompass corporate, stadium scale extravaganzas with correspondingly high price tags.

    Even if a smaller scale underground scene continued in parallel, a culture inextricably tied to the use, and the visual imagery, of MDMA had become a global phenomenon.

    Enforcement responses Attempts to deter or physically prevent MDMA use in night-life and festival settings have largely failed. Pills and powder drugs are small and easy to conceal, meaning only a relatively small proportion will be intercepted even by the most draconian security measures.

    This reality must be taken into account by any future regulatory regimes, and provides an important argument for management of night-time economy spaces to incorporate MDMA and other drug safety considerations; given the reality of use, the question is not how to stop it, but how to manage it to minimise harms. Photo: Steve Rolles If preventing drugs entering nightclubs and music venues has proved difficult, for large scale outdoor festivals and events it has been effectively impossible.

    In New South Wales, the practice of enforced strip searches, often of children under 16, heading towards festivals has caused outrage. In this case, we see the prevention of MDMA use apparently justifying behaviour that, in any other circumstance, could reasonably be described as state-sanctioned sexual abuse.

    In the early s a clampdown on the production of safrole oil in China — the key precursor for MDMA manufacture at the time — led to production shifting to Cambodia, where controls were weaker.

    Seizures increased in Cambodia from until a series of raids on woodland processing plants and huge seizures in — totalling more than 30 tonnes of the oil, enough to make hundreds of millions of MDMA pills — dramatically reduced production. Despite being hailed a major enforcement success, it had a number of ultimately harmful outcomes — from both enforcement and public health perspectives.

    The void in the market created by the MDMA shortage was soon exploited by entrepreneurs developing or introducing an array of novel psychoactive substances NPS with MDMA-like stimulant effects, but with unknown and potentially more toxic effects — many of which were mis-sold as MDMA.

    Unlike most other substitutes, which have since largely faded into obscurity, the market for mephedrone has survived the re-emergence of MDMA to some degree; its effects are distinct enough from MDMA to help establish its own drug culture niche, notably in the gay party scene. Because it is slower acting taking two hours for its effects to come on — twice as long as MDMA people often redosed thinking it was a weak MDMA pill — leading to overdose, emergency events and sometimes death.

    By , however, resilient demand for MDMA and the profit opportunity it offered led to a new production process being developed by illegal market entrepreneurs. This new process used a new precursor, called PMK-methyl-glycidate, that bypassed the need for the internationally prohibited safrole precursors altogether. This, in turn, led to a drop in price, and a rise in the purity and levels of MDMA content in pills, beginning in and accelerating from Use of MDMA has also risen from this point, and has coincided with higher seizure rates: 2.

    PMK-methyl-glycidate and its relatives were belatedly prohibited under the UN Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances in March , although it seems unlikely that this will change its now established role in MDMA production in the short term. The expanded name is 2-phenylethylamine. The phenethylamine family includes a range of substances that may be stimulants, entactogens or hallucinogens.

    Drug Profiles: Glossary. The origin of MDMA ecstasy revisited: the true story reconstructed from the original documents. Addiction Characterization of Three New Psychotomimetics. In: Stillman, R. The Psychopharmacology of Hallucinogens. New York: Pergamon. The politics of alcohol: a history of the drink question in England.

    Manchester University Press. Bar wars: contesting the night in contemporary British cities. Oxford University Press. A quantitative exploration of drug fatality reports in the popular press. International Journal of Drug Policy The Guardian 6 November.

    Acid House and Thatcherism: noise, the mob, and the English countryside. British Journal of Sociology. Play space: historical and socio-cultural reflections on drugs, licensed leisure locations, commercialisation and control. Beckley Foundation p The Pub and the People. London: Victor Gollancz. Energy flash: A journey through rave music and dance culture. London: Macmillan. Why is this happening? Shocking evidence builds pressure for strip-search reform in NSW. Guardian 6 Dec.

    The Phnom Penh Post 8 January. MDMA powder, pills and crystal: the persistence of ecstasy and the poverty of policy. Drugs and Alcohol Today 9. Deaths related to drug poisoning by selected substances. Seizures of drugs, England and Wales, financial year ending second edition.

    UK Home Office 31 October. Nine substances and three precursors "scheduled" at the 62nd Session of the Commission on Narcotic Drugs.

    This spike may be explained by the findings of a recent report published in April by the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction. The results found that MDMA manufacturers have been using a chemical called PMK-glycidate in order to achieve higher yields and greater purity of the drug.

    This has led to an increase in MDMA and ecstasy pills with dangerously high concentrations of the psychoactive compound. In fact, SCs led to more emergency treatments than any other drug looked at in the research — one in eight people who use SCs weekly reported being admitted to the hospital. Plus, the researchers found that the overall risk of requiring medical treatment when using SCs is 30 times higher than skunk cannabis. Aside from the top three legal drugs — alcohol, tobacco, and caffeine — the top 10 drugs used across the world were cannabis, MDMA, cocaine, amphetamines, LSD, hallucinogenic mushrooms, prescribed and non-prescribed opioids, nitrous oxide, and ketamine.

    The Commission is invited to carry out its treaty mandated provisions. This morning, we will first consider Item a Changes in the scope of control of substances.

    The CoW will be suspended during consideration of this item. We will, during the meeting today, proceed considering draft decision L10 entitled Changes in the scope of control of substances — Proposed scheduling recommendations of cannabis and cannabis-related substances. One notification informed about the review of 10 new psychoactive substances and two pain relieving medicines. In this regard, the ECDD made scheduling recommendations on 4 fentanyls and 5 synthetic cannabinoids.

    The contents of the recommendations were already presented orally by the representative of the WHO at the reconvened. Concerning the review of cannabis and cannabis related substances, the ECDD made several recommendations. They were not presented during the reconvened as they awaited clearance. They were formally shared as notes verbales in February. States were requested to submit comments to the Secretariat. The recommendations and comments submitted by States by 28 February are available to the Commission.

    After receiving the two notifications, a number of delegations expressed concern that not enough time was available to prepare the voting during this session of the commission. Considering that complex domestic procedures would need to be completed based on the recommendations. The extended bureau discussed this. The regional groups were consulted. During the discussion, reference was made to CND resolution from Procedure to be followed by the CND in matters of scheduling of narcotic drug and psychoactive substanceswhich requests WHO to forward recommendations at least three months prior to the commission session at which the recommendations could first be examined.

    At its intersessional meeting in February, the CND agreed on the recommendation of Extended Bureau concerning procedural recommendations to postpone vote.

    There’s a simple reason Ecstasy pills are so insanely strong this year

    It was agreed upon by the meeting of the Extended Bureau that the procedural resolution will be taken up after the voting today. We will first proceed to the scheduling recommendations of the following under and conventions. Secretariat: The CND has before, a document concerning the vote. A series of countries sent comments, including Bhutan, Bolivia, and Indonesia. The Commission will act by consensus to decide whether a vote is to be taken.

    For convention, a simple majority. In terms of the voting itself, in according to Rule 59 of the rules of procedure; the voting is conducting by showing of hands.

    Members in favour will be asked to raise their plates. Following that, those against will be asked. Only 53 countries members of the CND are invited to vote. The scheduling decision will be manifested immediately and then the CND will consider another. It appears in powder, tablets, nasal spray and vaping. It produces opioid like effects like analgesia. Potency between morphine and fentanyl. Significant potential for dependence and likelihood of abuse.

    Typical opioid adverse effects related to respiratory depressing. It has caused substantial harm and has no therapeutic use. Similar potential for abuse and effects of substances in Schedule I. Chair: I invite the CND to take a vote. Simple majority needed. I call only the members of the commission in favour to raise their plates and keep them raised until their name is called out: Afghanistan.

    Chair: Members of the commission not in favour? Chair: Members abstaining? Potential for dependence and likelihood of abuse. Typical opioid adverse effects including respiratory depression.

    Global Drug Survey Warns It’s the “Worst Time in a Generation” to Take MDMA

    Substantial harm and no therapeutic effect. Similar to opioids in Schedule I, recommend to schedule Schedule I Chair: In favour? Powders, liquid and table. Analgesia higher to morphine, close to fentanyl. High potential for abuse and dependence. Most serious adverse effect is respiratory depression; in overdose can lead to death.

    Consistent with opioid action. Significant risk to public health and no therapeutic use. Similar to opioids in Schedule I, so recommendation Schedule I Chair: Members of the Commission not in favour?

    Powders, liquid and tabletas. Opioid action and effects. Use associated with large number of deaths. For most, principal substance. No known therapeutic use, substantial harms. Potential for similar abuse and ill effects to opioids in Schedule I, so recommendation Schedule I Chair: Moving on to Convention.

    Effects like other synthetic cannabinoids. Similar mechanism of action to other Schedule II synthetic cannabinoids. Severe adverse effects. No therapeutic use. Recognising abuse and therapeutic use, recommendation Schedule II of I call those in favour.

    Severe adverse effects, including deaths. Smoked or inhaled. Similar effects and mechanism of action to other Schedule II synthetic cannabinoids.

    Plenary: Item 9. Implementation of the international drug control treaties (cont.)

    In Europe, most frequently seized. Evidence with fatal and nonfatal intoxication. Substantial harm. Smoked in plant material sprayed with substance or inhaled.

    Among the most potent. Mode of action with high likelihood of dependence and abuse. Severe intoxications and deaths. Causes harm. Recommendation Schedule II of Psychomotor stimulant effects, paranoia, tachychardia, consistent with other synthetic cathinones and not dissimilar to cocaine.

    Evidence of use in many countries in various regions. Filtering beer before fermentation and nonfatal intoxications.

    Substantial harm and no therapeutic usefulness. Recommendation to list Schedule II No known legitimate use nor regularly traded. The first two substances are very closely related to MDMA. PMK is not part of the drug convention. The board find that both chemicals are highly suitable for the illicit manufacturing of precursors for MDMA.

    The board recommends all stereoisomers be placed in table 1 of the UN convention against illicit drug trafficking in narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances, Then I invite the CND to take a vote. There is no known legitimate use and recommends adding APAA to table 1 of the convention. Chair: No comments?

    Hydroiodic acid Chair: As mentioned before, the government of Argentina proposed that apart from APAA and the other two substances, another substance hydroioidic acid. We will hear the advice of the INCB.

    INCB: The board suggest the substance Hydriodic acid can be used to create methamphetamines and amphetamines, though it should not be classified in the convention — due to other substances being available on the market that are cheaper and perform the same role. It also is seen to have legitimate medicinal uses in anaesthetics and research — the scheduling of this substance would not affect the production of illicit drugs therefore recommends it not be scheduled into the act. Argentina: Firstly, I would like to express gratitude for the technical assessment made by the INCB and the decision that this honourable commission has taken in relation to the 3 other precursors submitted.

    We feel this is an accompaniment of the evaluation my country did on this substance. In relation to the 4th substance, we have heard the INCB. Argentina is satisfied with this explanation and understand that, although the substance is relevant, because it has problematic uses, however the reasons put forward justify this assessment and the proposed decision by the Board is appropriate. None Chair: Members of the Commission not in favour? Argentina, Brazil, Peru.

    Chair: Now, we will focus on L10 on cannabis and cannabis related substances. I invite the CND to adopt the decision contained in L I see no objection. The decision is adopted. May I ask if any delegation wishes to take the floor at this stage? If we could not do the vote today, NPS would stay unregulated. Japan recognises our decision progresses to prevent smuggling, trafficking and abusing.

    And international community should more actively cooperate together to prevent abuse of those substances. Recently, international measures against NPS have been progressing; it is very important that information sharing among member states concerning newly found NPS and national countermeasures in each country and accumulation of research data concerning statistics and effects.

    It is important that continuous measures from: first, finding new NPS in the market and its analyses; second, measures on prevention and border control and education. Further sharing of scientific expertise among member states as well as strengthening domestic measures in each country. We had already regulated 9 of 12 substances excluding 3 precursors as designated substances at this CND.

    We are ready to reclassify these 9 NPS into the narcotic category as soon as possible. We appreciate the proposal country, Argentina, and INCB for scheduling 3 new precursors under the international treaties. Clandestine production of illicit drugs converting from precursors is increasing and diversifying recently. We apply cannabis for medical use, it is significant to not only focus on accessibility but also to establish substantial and detailed systems for preventing abuse.

    Japan supports our decision to discuss carefully with enough time.


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