Understanding hares reading passage


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  • IELTSDATA READING PASSAGE 43 Myxomatosis
  • Academic IELTS Reading Test 118
  • IELTS Reading Practice Test 40 with Answers
  • Cambridge 11 Reading Test 1-2-3-4 Answers
  • The Rufous Hare-Wallaby – IELTS Reading Answers

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    It stands about 20 inches tall at the shoulder but weighs about 20 pounds—scarcely more than a large house cat. Historically, the Canada lynx ranged from Alaska across Canada and into many of the northern U.

    In eastern states, it lived in a transition zone in which boreal coniferous forests yielded to deciduous forests. In the West, it preferred subalpine coniferous forests of mixed age. It would den and seek protection from severe weather in mature forests with downed logs but hunt for its primary prey, the snowshoe hare, in young forests with more open space. The two species evolved together; the cat becoming a specialist in killing the hare, the hare becoming adept at eluding the lynx.

    The lynx kills an average of one hare every two or three days. It will turn to killing grouse, rodents, and other animals if hares become scarce. Hare populations follow a natural cyclical pattern, changing approximately every ten years from abundance to scarcity and back to abundance. Adult lynx usually survive periods of hare scarcity, but their kittens often do not. As a result, the lynx population follows a similar pattern, with its peaks and valleys lagging one to two years behind those of the hare.

    Lynx populations south of the Canadian border were probably never as abundant or dense as the more northern populations. Although lynx were never abundant in the United States, they probably did occur in most northern states and western mountainous areas as far south as Colorado. Today, while tens of thousands of lynx remain in Canada and Alaska, the U. In the nineteenth century, trapping put heavy pressure on the species. Some timber practices can remove the mature forest that the lynx needs for denning and rearing young.

    These activities can also disrupt lynx travel patterns, as the cats prefer tree cover. Roads threaten the lynx by fragmenting its habitat, isolating lynx populations, exposing them to predators, and providing competitor species new access to habitat formerly dominated by the lynx. For example, snowmobile traffic creates trails that may allow competitors like coyotes, wolves, and cougars access to lynx winter habitat.

    This includes national and state forests, where logging and recreational development often occur. With memories of the northern spotted owl controversy still fresh, FWS was reluctant to list the lynx in the lower 48 states, particularly as the species was still considered abundant in Canada and Alaska. Not only did Congress set logging at an unsustainable level for many forests, but it also protected the sales from court anneal hv exempting them from the safeguards of environmental laws.

    The logging industry maintained that this cut was necessary because large numbers of trees had died from disease, fire, and insects, thereby making the forests unhealthy. Forest Service statistics show little change in tree deaths during the past half century, however, and the law was written so loosely that living trees were scheduled for cutting.

    In March , FWS finally listed the lynx as threatened in the lower Its listing will provide a critical step in conserving the lynx throughout the southern part of its natural range, since federal protection will spur much-needed research on the species, aid in generating funds for lynx efforts, and form the basis for managing forest uses for lynx survival.

    Which paragraph contains the following information? Write the correct letter A-H, in boxes on your answer sheet. Write your answers in boxes on your answer sheet. Question 6 Why are southern lynx more vulnerable than the northern ones? Please select TWO facts that correctly depict the relationship between lynx and hare? A Climate change.

    What Is the Difference Between a Rabbit and a Hare?

    Even in these days of agricultural intensification, the hare is still to be seen in open countryside, but its numbers are falling. Attempt full reading test… A Like many herbivores, brown hares spend a relatively large amount of their time feeding.

    They prefer to do this in the dark, but when nights are short, their activities do spill into daylight hours. Wherever they live, hares appear to have a fondness for fields with a variety of vegetation, for example short as well as longer clumps of grasses.

    Studies have demonstrated that they benefit from uncultivated land and other unploughed areas on farms, such as field margins. Therefore, if farmers provided patches of woodland in areas of pasture as well as assorted crops in arable areas, there would be year-round shelter and food, and this could be the key to turning round the current decline in hare populations.

    B Brown hares have a number of physical adaptations that enable them to survive in open countryside. They have exceptionally large ears that move independently, so that a range of sounds can be pinpointed accurately. Compared to mammals of a similar size, hares have a greatly enlarged heart and a higher volume of blood in their bodies, and this allows for superior speed and stamina.

    In addition, their legs are longer than those of a rabbit, enabling hares to run more like a dog and reach speeds of up to 70 kph. C Brown hares have unusual lifestyles for their large size, breeding from a young age and producing many leverets babies.

    There are about three litters of up to four leverets every year. Both males and females are able to breed at about seven months old, but they have to be quick because they seldom live for more than two years. The breeding season runs from January to October, and by late February most females are pregnant or giving birth to their first litter of the year. So it seems strange, therefore, that it is in March, when the breeding season is already underway, that hares seemingly go mad: boxing, dancing, running and fighting.

    In fact, boxing occurs throughout the breeding season, but people tend to see this behaviour more often in March.

    IELTSDATA READING PASSAGE 43 Myxomatosis

    Do the following statements agree with the views of the writer in Reading Passage 1? Write your answers in boxes on your answer sheet. Psychology to make people accept potatoes.

    Academic IELTS Reading Test 118

    Saving the British Bitterns A Breeding bitterns became extinct in the UK by but, following re-colonisation early last century, numbers rose to a peak of about 70 booming singing males in the s, falling to fewer than 20 by the s.

    In the late s, it was clear that the bittern was in trouble, but there was little information on which to base recovery actions. B Bitterns have cryptic plumage and shy nature, usually remaining hidden within the cover of reedbed vegetation. Our first challenge was to develop standard methods to monitor their numbers.

    IELTS Reading Practice Test 40 with Answers

    The boom of the male bittern is its most distinctive feature during the breeding season, and we developed a method to count them using the sound patterns unique to each individual. This not only allows us to be much more certain of the number of booming males in the UK but also enables us to estimate the local survival of males from one year to the next.

    C Our first direct understanding of the habitat needs of breeding bitterns came from comparisons of reedbed sites that had lost their booming birds with those that retained them.

    This research showed that bitterns had been retained in reedbeds where the natural process of succession, or drying out, had been slowed through management.

    Based on this work, broad recommendations on how to manage and rehabilitate reedbeds for bitterns were made, and funding was provided through the EU LIFE Fund to manage 13 sites within the core breeding range. This project, though led by the RSPB, involved many other organisations. This showed clear preferences for feeding in the wetter reedbed margins, particularly within the reedbed next to larger open pools.

    The average home range sizes of the male bitterns we followed about 20 hectares provided a good indication of the area of reedbed needed when managing or creating habitat for this species. Female bitterns undertake all the incubation and care of the young, so it was important to understand their needs as well. Over the course of our research, we located 87 bittern nests and found that female bitterns preferred to nest in areas of continuous vegetation, well into the reedbed, but where water was still present during the driest part of the breeding season.

    E The success of the habitat prescriptions developed from this research has been spectacular. For instance, at Minsmere, booming bittern numbers gradually increased from one to 10 following reedbed lowering, a management technique designed to halt the drying out process. After a low point of 11 booming males inbittern numbers in Britain responded to all the habitat management work and started to increase for the first time since the s. F The final phase of the research involved understanding the diet, survival and dispersal of bittern chicks.

    To do this we fitted small radio tags to young bittern chicks in the nest, to determine their fate through to fledge and beyond. Many chicks did not survive to fledging and starvation was found to be the most likely reason for their demise.

    The fish prey fed to chicks was dominated by those species penetrating into the reed edge. So, an important element of recent studies including a PhD with the University of Hull has been the development of recommendations on habitat and water conditions to promote healthy native fish populations. G Once independent, radio-tagged young bitterns were found to seek out new sites during their first winter; a proportion of these would remain on new sites to breed if the conditions were suitable. A network of 19 sites developed through this partnership project will secure a more sustainable UK bittern population with successful breeding outside of the core area, less vulnerable to chance events and sea-level rise.

    H Bythe number of booming male bitterns in the UK had increased to 55, with almost all of the increase being on those sites undertaking management based on advice derived from our research. Although science has been at the core of the bittern story, success has only been achieved through the trust, hard work and dedication of all the managers, owners and wardens of sites that have implemented, in some cases very drastic, management to secure the future of this wetland species in the UK.

    Reed establishment has principally used natural regeneration or planted seedlings to provide small core areas that will in time expand to create a bigger reed area.

    Cambridge 11 Reading Test 1-2-3-4 Answers

    To date, nearlyseedlings have been planted and reed cover is extensive. Over 3 km of new ditches have been formed, 3. I Bitterns now regularly winter on the site with some indication that they are staying longer into the spring. No breeding has yet occurred but a booming male was present in the spring of A range of wildfowl breed, as well as a good number of reedbed passerines including reed bunting, reed, sedge and grasshopper warblers.

    Studies have demonstrated that they benefit from uncultivated land and other unploughed areas on farms, such as field margins. Therefore, if farmers provided patches of woodland in areas of pasture as well as assorted crops in arable areas, there would be year-round shelter and food, and this could be the key to turning round the current decline in hare populations.

    B Brown hares have a number of physical adaptations that enable them to survive in open countryside. They have exceptionally large ears that move independently, so that a range of sounds can be pinpointed accurately. Compared to mammals of a similar size, hares have a greatly enlarged heart and a higher volume of blood in their bodies, and this allows for superior speed and stamina.

    In addition, their legs are longer than those of a rabbit, enabling hares to run more like a dog and reach speeds of up to 70 kph. C Brown hares have unusual lifestyles for their large size, breeding from a young age and producing many leverets babies. There are about three litters of up to four leverets every year.


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