Project transition plan from one vendor to another ppt


  • Project Transition – Transitioning from Implementation to Maintenance
  • 4. Framework for Project Management
  • Top Area Social Media and Nav Links
  • There are dozens of things that can go wrong at any point in time during the development of your project. A good provider will go above and beyond to fix such issues if any arise.

    The truth is, however, that not all software development companies are good. If you have faced a dishonest service provider, it is best to end your cooperation as soon as possible. Yet, to avoid doing even more harm to your project, you need a solid project transition plan to ensure that the project is smoothly transferred from one vendor to another.

    In this article, we will delve into the nuances and phases of transition management and provide first-hand advice on how to switch providers with minimum risk to your business. Why do you need an established IT transition management process? The challenges and risks of switching vendors According to various sources, a successful project transition plan from one vendor to another can take months.

    The more complex the project, the longer the transition will take. In addition to the time needed for the project transition plan, there are some other challenges a business owner should be aware of when switching providers: The past provider is unwilling to cooperate with the new one.

    Indeed, the company is not contractually obliged to support the incoming provider. So, in most cases you will need to act as a mediator, transferring the project knowledge from one part to another. Alternatively, you can put a monetary reward in place at the early phases of transition management to spark the interest of the leaving party to mitigate the loss of project knowledge.

    The transition of IP rights and dealing with confidential information. Upon the termination of the contract, the provider must transfer all assets. The only thing you can do is to make sure there is a rock-solid NDA in place, so you can press charges in case of leaks. Service disruption. In the last weeks of project development, after you have announced your plans to terminate your cooperation, the vendor can reassign your development resources to another project, or developers themselves can lose motivation.

    There is little you can do about this. Just make sure to minimize the disruption for the most vital business processes. Yes, switching providers can be a challenging, costly, and risky process. However, if you fail to do so, you can be stuck with an unreliable provider, leading to poor quality of the end product and even bigger delays. To optimize the effort and navigate possible pitfalls of managing a smooth outsourcing transition, follow our 3-step guide.

    A software development vendor transition plan: A step by step guide to a smooth project transition plan As a product owner, there are many things you can do to facilitate a smooth project transition plan. Namely, we recommend following the three steps listed below during the early phases of transition management.

    Make sure to understand the basics Knowing the ins-and-outs of your product specifics is a must. When you are working on a software project transition plan, make sure to understand which technologies the developers you hire should be skilled in. NET; Frameworks — Node. If you are scaling your product on mobile as well, include mobile technologies to your stack as well. Understanding which tools you are using to bring products to the market helps you choose a fit software vendor and increases the speed of selection.

    This way, you can choose people experienced in creating a needed type of gateway. Where you are hosting your platform To make sure that the vendor you choose as a part of the project transition plan will deploy and maintain your project skillfully, choose a vendor who knows how to maintain an app on the hosting platform you use. Be ready to explain to the vendor, why you chose a particular hosting platform over alternatives. Take your time to get to know the most common platforms and determine why they were not a good fit for your project: GitHub Pages — for hosting small projects and static pages; Cloud storage platforms — AWS or Google Cloud Platform; Serverless architecture vendors these allow developers to pay for as many resources as the project is using at the moment — AWS Lambda, Google Cloud, or Microsoft Azure.

    What platforms your project supports Last but not least, you should aim at hiring a vendor skilled in supporting the type of platform you have built — be it a progressive web application, a single-page application, a native iOS or Android product, or a cross-platform app.

    To make sure that your vendor follows the best development practices, be clear on the platform you prioritize over others, and choose a contractor who specializes in the field. A lot of business owners use platforms like Clutch. These are helpful for finding contractors specializing in building a particular product type.

    Develop the knowledge transition plan for software projects! Before you dive into details, here is a project transition checklist in Excel suitable for transition of the projects of up to people.

    A knowledge transition plan for software projects should cover the following sources of information: Project specifications. Regardless of the development stage that your software project, is at, collect and provide all available requirements to the new vendor. While the latest version of the specs is a must, initial project documentation if you have any would be a great source of background information and will help the new team understand what was going on with the project before.

    Code documentation. Well-documented source code can speed up the transition process and help the new team feel at home with your project. Assets transfer. Be it mockups, design files, or other assets, your current team the one you are leaving should hand all of the project-related documents and files over to you. To avoid any misunderstanding, consult with the newly hired team about their requirements e.

    Development credentials. Thus, you might need to create new accounts and make sure to deactivate the old ones more on that — later. The tools and credentials can vary depending on the type of project or tech stack, so better ask the new vendor to provide a list of required information. Deployment procedures. Deploying updates directly to the live application is a very dangerous move.

    Any other technical information relevant to the project that should be included into the onboarding documents for the new team. Check this project transition checklist in Excel suitable for transition of the projects of up to people. Establish IP ownership Usually, any work that is conducted by a software development company is considered a work for hire, which makes you a sole owner of all the intellectual property created by your contractor.

    However, you need to make sure that this message is clearly stated in the agreement. Read more about code ownership and IP rights at Eastern Peak here. You will need to deactivate the old accounts or change passwords so that the old team no longer has access to your product. Otherwise your IP rights might be at risk. According to a standard NDA, the provider should destroy all assets and information related to your project after the termination of the contract.

    Make that clear with the vendor you are leaving. Get the new team up to speed After you choose the vendor capable of deploying, maintaining, and scaling your project, make sure that the newly onboarded team has all the tools needed to start working. Step 1. Updating the team on the project status Before changing vendors, make sure you have a clear understanding of how much the previous team has accomplished.

    Take some time to assess the progress the vendor you used to work with made. Step 2. As the one in charge of the software vendor transition plan, you need to make sure that software developers understand the strategies and best practices used to build projects. Sharing this data with vendors will help you be on the same page and streamline software development. Step 3.

    Mapping out risks and challenges Finally, before completing the software development transition plan, make sure the team you are bringing on board is fully aware of the challenges they might meet along the way. Here are the main types of risks you should keep tabs on and tell the vendor about: Technology-related bottlenecks.

    If you have recently integrated a new technology into the project, optimizing it will take some time and bring along the risk of crashes. Performance risks the previous vendor you worked with had to deal with — these may eventually resurface.

    Legal risks that could have to do with third-party technologies and patents, data security, and other aspects of the project. Managing the handoff The success of project handover largely depends on the way your previous team of vendors was handling their work. Before terminating the collaboration with the development team and switching to a new vendor, make sure that all project files are prepared for a hand-off.

    Here is the project transition plan checklist project owners should implement before letting a vendor team go: Make sure that developers have documented their work and best practices and shared these files with you. Consider hiring lawyers and technical consultants to help you protect intellectual property and avoid financial damage after the exit.

    Onboarding a new vendor responsibly can make up for project management miss-outs. Here is a software transition plan checklist company managers and CTOs should follow to streamline the process: Before signing a service agreement with new software vendors, ask them for a detailed code review.

    Other than that, code reviews help managers understand how much time and money they will need to complete the project.

    Create clear documentation standards and monitor compliance. Emphasize the importance of code documentation and mention clear reporting practices in the service agreement. Forward all the correspondence with the old team to new vendors so that they can catch up and understand what the last contractor you worked with already accomplished.

    IT service transition checklist. Where to start? Our team at Eastern Peak has vast experience helping business owners make the IT transition management process smooth and efficient. Thus, we have developed our own approach to this task. Our IT service transition checklist includes the following steps: Initial consultation. Transition process planning. At this point we cover all the steps that you should take to start the transition process as described earlier in the article and prepare all onboarding documents.

    Project review and recommendations. We also can help you choose a more efficient project management toolset and suggest ways to make your product even better.

    If there is any information lacking, we will tell you exactly what is needed. As a result, we will be able to start the onboarding process with your dedicated development team at Eastern Peak.

    The above-described process runs under close supervision of experienced product managers and software architects. In this way, you can be sure that the transition is smooth and effortless. See this project transition checklist in Excel suitable for transition of the projects of up to people.

    Project constraints Project assumptions The scope document is the basis for agreement by all parties. A clear project scope document is also critical to managing change on a project.

    Since the project scope reflects what work will be accomplished on the project, any change in expectations that is not captured and documented creates the opportunity for confusion. One of the most common trends on projects is the incremental expansion in the project scope. Increasing the scope of the project is a common occurrence, and adjustments are made to the project budget and schedule to account for these changes. Scope creep occurs when these changes are not recognized or not managed.

    The ability of a project manager to identify potential changes is often related to the quality of the scope documents. Events do occur that require the scope of the project to change. Changes in the marketplace may require change in a product design or the timing of the product delivery.

    Changes in the project schedule, budget, or product quality will have an effect on the project plan. Generally, the later in the project the change occurs, the greater the increase to the project costs.

    The project manager also analyzes the cost and schedule impact of these changes and adjusts the project plan to reflect the changes authorized by the client. Changes to the scope can cause costs to increase or decrease. Project Schedule and Time Management The definition of project success often includes completing the project on time. The development and management of a project schedule that will complete the project on time is a primary responsibility of the project manager, and completing the project on time requires the development of a realistic plan and the effective management of the plan.

    On smaller projects, project managers may lead the development of the project plan and build a schedule to meet that plan. On larger and more complex projects, a project controls team that focuses on both costs and schedule planning and controlling functions will assist the project management team in developing the plan and tracking progress against the plan.

    To develop the project schedule, the project team does an analysis of the project scope, contract, and other information that helps the team define the project deliverables. Based on this information, the project team develops a milestone schedule. The milestone schedule establishes key dates throughout the life of a project that must be met for the project to finish on time.

    The key dates are often established to meet contractual obligations or established intervals that will reflect appropriate progress for the project.

    For less complex projects, a milestone schedule may be sufficient for tracking the progress of the project. For more complex projects, a more detailed schedule is required. To develop a more detailed schedule, the project team first develops a work breakdown structure WBS —a description of tasks arranged in layers of detail. Although the project scope is the primary document for developing the WBS, the WBS incorporates all project deliverables and reflects any documents or information that clarifies the project deliverables.

    From the WBS, a project plan is developed. The project plan lists the activities that are needed to accomplish the work identified in the WBS. The more detailed the WBS, the more activities that are identified to accomplish the work. After the project team identifies the activities, the team sequences the activities according to the order in which the activities are to be accomplished.

    An outcome from the work process is the project logic diagram. The logic diagram represents the logical sequence of the activities needed to complete the project. The next step in the planning process is to develop an estimation of the time it will take to accomplish each activity or the activity duration. Some activities must be done sequentially, and some activities can be done concurrently.

    The planning process creates a project schedule by scheduling activities in a way that effectively and efficiently uses project resources and completes the project in the shortest time.

    On larger projects, several paths are created that represent a sequence of activities from the beginning to the end of the project. The longest path to the completion of the project is the critical path.

    If the critical path takes less time than is allowed by the client to complete the project, the project has a positive total float or project slack. Understanding and managing activities on the critical path is an important project management skill.

    To successfully manage a project, the project manager must also know how to accelerate a schedule to compensate for unanticipated events that delay critical activities. Compressing—crashing—the schedule is a term used to describe the techniques used to shorten the project schedule. During the life of the project, scheduling conflicts often occur, and the project manager is responsible for reducing these conflicts while maintaining project quality and meeting cost goals.

    Project Costs The definition of project success often includes completing the project within budget. Developing and controlling a project budget that will accomplish the project objectives is a critical project management skill. Although clients expect the project to be executed efficiently, cost pressures vary on projects. On some projects, the project completion or end date is the largest contributor to the project complexity.

    The development of a new drug to address a critical health issue, the production of a new product that will generate critical cash flow for a company, and the competitive advantage for a company to be first in the marketplace with a new technology are examples of projects with schedule pressures that override project costs. The accuracy of the project budget is related to the amount of information known by the project team.

    In the early stages of the project, the amount of information needed to develop a detailed budget is often missing.

    To address the lack of information, the project team develops different levels of project budget estimates. The major input into the conceptual estimate is expert knowledge or past experience. A project manager who has executed a similar project in the past can use those costs to estimate the costs of the current project. When more information is known, the project team can develop a rough order of magnitude ROM estimate. Additional information such as the approximate square feet of a building, the production capacity of a plant, and the approximate number of hours needed to develop a software program can provide a basis for providing a ROM estimate.

    After a project design is more complete, a project detailed estimate can be developed. For example, when the project team knows the number of rooms, the type of materials, and the building location of a home, they can provide a detailed estimate. A detailed estimate is not a bid. The cost of the project is tracked relative to the progress of the work and the estimate for accomplishing that work.

    Based on the cost estimate, the cost of the work performed is compared against the cost budgeted for that work. If the cost is significantly higher or lower, the project team explores reasons for the difference between expected costs and actual costs. Project costs may deviate from the budget because the prices in the marketplace were different from what was expected.

    For example, the estimated costs for lumber on a housing project may be higher than budgeted or the hourly cost for labour may be lower than budgeted. Project costs may also deviate based on project performance. For example, a project team estimated that the steel design for a bridge over a river would take labour hours, but hours were actually expended.

    The project team captures the deviation between costs budgeted for work and the actual cost for work, revises the estimate as needed, and takes corrective action if the deviation appears to reflect a trend. The project manager is responsible for assuring that the project team develops cost estimates based on the best information available and revises those estimates as new or better information becomes available.

    The project manager is also responsible for tracking costs against the budget and conducting an analysis when project costs deviate significantly from the project estimate. The project manager then takes appropriate corrective action to ensure that project performance matches the revised project plan. Project Quality Project quality focuses on the end product or service deliverables that reflect the purpose of the project. The project manager is responsible for developing a project execution approach that provides for a clear understanding of the expected project deliverables and the quality specifications.

    The project manager of a housing construction project not only needs to understand which rooms in the house will be carpeted but also what grade of carpet is needed. A room with a high volume of traffic will need a high-grade carpet. The project manager is responsible for developing a project quality plan that defines the quality expectations and ensures that the specifications and expectations are met. Developing a good understanding of the project deliverables through documenting specifications and expectations is critical to a good quality plan.

    The processes for ensuring that the specifications and expectations are met are integrated into the project execution plan. Just as the project budget and completion dates may change over the life of a project, the project specifications may also change. Changes in quality specifications are typically managed in the same process as cost or schedule changes. The impact of the changes is analyzed for impact on cost and schedule, and with appropriate approvals, changes are made to the project execution plan.

    The material found in this chapter would be similar to material found in a good operational management text. Although any of the quality management techniques designed to make incremental improvement to work processes can be applied to a project work process, the character of a project unique and relatively short in duration makes small improvements less attractive on projects. Rework on projects, as with manufacturing operations, increases the cost of the product or service and often increases the time needed to complete the reworked activities.

    Because of the duration constraints of a project, the development of the appropriate skills, materials, and work processes early in the project is critical to project success.

    On more complex projects, time is allocated to developing a plan to understand and develop the appropriate levels of skills and work processes. Project management organizations that execute several similar types of projects may find process improvement tools useful in identifying and improving the baseline processes used on their projects.

    Process improvement tools may also be helpful in identifying cost and schedule improvement opportunities. Opportunities for improvement must be found quickly to influence project performance.

    The investment in time and resources to find improvements is greatest during the early stages of the project, when the project is in the planning stages. During later project stages, as pressures to meet project schedule goals increase, the culture of the project is less conducive to making changes in work processes. Another opportunity for applying process improvement tools is on projects that have repetitive processes. A housing contractor that is building several identical houses may benefit from evaluating work processes in the first few houses to explore the opportunities available to improve the work processes.

    Project Team: Human Resources and Communications Staffing the project with the right skills, at the right place, and at the right time is an important responsibility of the project management team. The project usually has two types of team members: functional managers and process managers.

    The functional managers and team focus on the technology of the project. On a construction project, the functional managers would include the engineering manager and construction superintendents. On a training project, the functional manager would include the professional trainers; on an information technology project, the software development managers would be functional managers.

    The project management team also includes project process managers. The project controls team would include process managers who have expertise in estimating, cost tracking, planning, and scheduling.

    The project manager needs functional and process expertise to plan and execute a successful project. Because projects are temporary, the staffing plan for a project typically reflects both the long-term goals of skilled team members needed for the project and short-term commitment that reflects the nature of the project.

    Exact start and end dates for team members are often negotiated to best meet the needs of individuals and the project.

    Why do you need an established IT transition management process? The challenges and risks of switching vendors According to various sources, a successful project transition plan from one vendor to another can take months. The more complex the project, the longer the transition will take. In addition to the time needed for the project transition plan, there are some other challenges a business owner should be aware of when switching providers: The past provider is unwilling to cooperate with the new one.

    Indeed, the company is not contractually obliged to support the incoming provider. So, in most cases you will need to act as a mediator, transferring the project knowledge from one part to another. Alternatively, you can put a monetary reward in place at the early phases of transition management to spark the interest of the leaving party to mitigate the loss of project knowledge.

    The transition of IP rights and dealing with confidential information. Upon the termination of the contract, the provider must transfer all assets. The only thing you can do is to make sure there is a rock-solid NDA in place, so you can press charges in case of leaks. Service disruption. In the last weeks of project development, after you have announced your plans to terminate your cooperation, the vendor can reassign your development resources to another project, or developers themselves can lose motivation.

    There is little you can do about this. Just make sure to minimize the disruption for the most vital business processes.

    Yes, switching providers can be a challenging, costly, and risky process. However, if you fail to do so, you can be stuck with an unreliable provider, leading to poor quality of the end product and even bigger delays.

    To optimize the effort and navigate possible pitfalls of managing a smooth outsourcing transition, follow our 3-step guide. A software development vendor transition plan: A step by step guide to a smooth project transition plan As a product owner, there are many things you can do to facilitate a smooth project transition plan. Namely, we recommend following the three steps listed below during the early phases of transition management.

    Make sure to understand the basics Knowing the ins-and-outs of your product specifics is a must. When you are working on a software project transition plan, make sure to understand which technologies the developers you hire should be skilled in. NET; Frameworks — Node. If you are scaling your product on mobile as well, include mobile technologies to your stack as well. Understanding which tools you are using to bring products to the market helps you choose a fit software vendor and increases the speed of selection.

    This way, you can choose people experienced in creating a needed type of gateway. Where you are hosting your platform To make sure that the vendor you choose as a part of the project transition plan will deploy and maintain your project skillfully, choose a vendor who knows how to maintain an app on the hosting platform you use.

    Be ready to explain to the vendor, why you chose a particular hosting platform over alternatives. Take your time to get to know the most common platforms and determine why they were not a good fit for your project: GitHub Pages — for hosting small projects and static pages; Cloud storage platforms — AWS or Google Cloud Platform; Serverless architecture vendors these allow developers to pay for as many resources as the project is using at the moment — AWS Lambda, Google Cloud, or Microsoft Azure.

    Project Transition – Transitioning from Implementation to Maintenance

    What platforms your project supports Last but not least, you should aim at hiring a vendor skilled in supporting the type of platform you have built — be it a progressive web application, a single-page application, a native iOS or Android product, or a cross-platform app. To make sure that your vendor follows the best development practices, be clear on the platform you prioritize over others, and choose a contractor who specializes in the field. A lot of business owners use platforms like Clutch.

    These are helpful for finding contractors specializing in building a particular product type. Develop the knowledge transition plan for software projects! Before you dive into details, here is a project transition checklist in Excel suitable for transition of the projects of up to people.

    A knowledge transition plan for software projects should cover the following sources of information: Project specifications. Regardless of the development stage that your software project, is at, collect and provide all available requirements to the new vendor.

    While the latest version of the specs is a must, initial project documentation if you have any would be a great source of background information and will help the new team understand what was going on with the project before. Code documentation. Well-documented source code can speed up the transition process and help the new team feel at home with your project. Assets transfer. Be it mockups, design files, or other assets, your current team the one you are leaving should hand all of the project-related documents and files over to you.

    To avoid any misunderstanding, consult with the newly hired team about their requirements e. Development credentials. Thus, you might need to create new accounts and make sure to deactivate the old ones more on that — later.

    The tools and credentials can vary depending on the type of project or tech stack, so better ask the new vendor to provide a list of required information. Deployment procedures. Deploying updates directly to the live application is a very dangerous move. Any other technical information relevant to the project that should be included into the onboarding documents for the new team.

    Check this project transition checklist in Excel suitable for transition of the projects of up to people. Establish IP ownership Usually, any work that is conducted by a software development company is considered a work for hire, which makes you a sole owner of all the intellectual property created by your contractor. The longest path to the completion of the project is the critical path.

    If the critical path takes less time than is allowed by the client to complete the project, the project has a positive total float or project slack.

    Understanding and managing activities on the critical path is an important project management skill. To successfully manage a project, the project manager must also know how to accelerate a schedule to compensate for unanticipated events that delay critical activities.

    Compressing—crashing—the schedule is a term used to describe the techniques used to shorten the project schedule. During the life of the project, scheduling conflicts often occur, and the project manager is responsible for reducing these conflicts while maintaining project quality and meeting cost goals.

    Project Costs The definition of project success often includes completing the project within budget. Developing and controlling a project budget that will accomplish the project objectives is a critical project management skill. Although clients expect the project to be executed efficiently, cost pressures vary on projects. On some projects, the project completion or end date is the largest contributor to the project complexity.

    The development of a new drug to address a critical health issue, the production of a new product that will generate critical cash flow for a company, and the competitive advantage for a company to be first in the marketplace with a new technology are examples of projects with schedule pressures that override project costs. The accuracy of the project budget is related to the amount of information known by the project team.

    In the early stages of the project, the amount of information needed to develop a detailed budget is often missing. To address the lack of information, the project team develops different levels of project budget estimates. The major input into the conceptual estimate is expert knowledge or past experience.

    A project manager who has executed a similar project in the past can use those costs to estimate the costs of the current project. When more information is known, the project team can develop a rough order of magnitude ROM estimate.

    Additional information such as the approximate square feet of a building, the production capacity of a plant, and the approximate number of hours needed to develop a software program can provide a basis for providing a ROM estimate. After a project design is more complete, a project detailed estimate can be developed. For example, when the project team knows the number of rooms, the type of materials, and the building location of a home, they can provide a detailed estimate.

    A detailed estimate is not a bid. The cost of the project is tracked relative to the progress of the work and the estimate for accomplishing that work. Based on the cost estimate, the cost of the work performed is compared against the cost budgeted for that work. If the cost is significantly higher or lower, the project team explores reasons for the difference between expected costs and actual costs.

    Project costs may deviate from the budget because the prices in the marketplace were different from what was expected. For example, the estimated costs for lumber on a housing project may be higher than budgeted or the hourly cost for labour may be lower than budgeted.

    Project costs may also deviate based on project performance. For example, a project team estimated that the steel design for a bridge over a river would take labour hours, but hours were actually expended. The project team captures the deviation between costs budgeted for work and the actual cost for work, revises the estimate as needed, and takes corrective action if the deviation appears to reflect a trend.

    The project manager is responsible for assuring that the project team develops cost estimates based on the best information available and revises those estimates as new or better information becomes available. The project manager is also responsible for tracking costs against the budget and conducting an analysis when project costs deviate significantly from the project estimate. The project manager then takes appropriate corrective action to ensure that project performance matches the revised project plan.

    Project Quality Project quality focuses on the end product or service deliverables that reflect the purpose of the project. The project manager is responsible for developing a project execution approach that provides for a clear understanding of the expected project deliverables and the quality specifications. The project manager of a housing construction project not only needs to understand which rooms in the house will be carpeted but also what grade of carpet is needed.

    A room with a high volume of traffic will need a high-grade carpet. The project manager is responsible for developing a project quality plan that defines the quality expectations and ensures that the specifications and expectations are met. Developing a good understanding of the project deliverables through documenting specifications and expectations is critical to a good quality plan.

    The processes for ensuring that the specifications and expectations are met are integrated into the project execution plan. Just as the project budget and completion dates may change over the life of a project, the 6 letter email domain starting with m specifications may also change.

    Changes in quality specifications are typically managed in the same process as cost or schedule changes. The impact of the changes is analyzed for impact on cost and schedule, and with appropriate approvals, changes are made to the project execution plan.

    4. Framework for Project Management

    The material found in this chapter would be similar to material found in a good operational management text. Although any of the quality management techniques designed to make incremental improvement to work processes can be applied to a project work process, the character of a project unique and relatively short in duration makes small improvements less attractive on projects.

    Rework on projects, as with manufacturing operations, increases the cost of the product or service and often increases the time needed to complete the reworked activities. Because of the duration constraints of a project, the development of the appropriate skills, materials, and work processes early in the project is critical to project success.

    On more complex projects, time is allocated to developing a plan to understand and develop the appropriate levels of skills and work processes. Project management organizations that execute several similar types of projects may find process improvement tools useful in identifying and improving the baseline processes used on their projects. Process improvement tools may also be helpful in identifying cost and schedule improvement opportunities. Opportunities for improvement must be found quickly to influence project performance.

    The investment in time and resources to find improvements is greatest during the early stages of the project, when the project is in the planning stages. During later project stages, as pressures to meet project schedule goals increase, the culture of the project is less conducive to making changes in work processes.

    Another opportunity for applying process improvement tools is on projects that have repetitive processes. A housing contractor that is building several identical houses may benefit from evaluating work processes in the first few houses to explore the opportunities available to improve the work processes.

    Project Team: Human Resources and Communications Staffing the project with the right skills, at the right place, and at the right time is an important responsibility of the project management team. The project usually has two types of team members: functional managers and process managers. The functional managers and team focus on the technology of the project. On a construction project, the functional managers would include the engineering manager and construction superintendents.

    On a training project, the functional manager would include the professional trainers; on an information technology project, the software development managers would cin durin yar fulani functional managers. The project management team also includes project process managers. The project controls team would include process managers who have expertise in estimating, cost tracking, planning, and scheduling.

    The project manager needs functional and process expertise to plan and execute a successful project. Because projects are temporary, the staffing plan for a project typically reflects both the long-term goals of skilled team members needed for the project and short-term commitment that reflects the nature of the project. Exact start and end dates for team members are often negotiated to best meet the needs of individuals and the project. The staffing plan is also determined by the different phases of the project.

    Team members needed in the early or conceptual phases of the project are often not needed during the later phases or project closeout phases. Team members needed during the implementation phase are often not needed during the conceptual or closeout phases. Each phase has staffing requirements, and the staffing of a complex project requires detailed planning to have the right skills, at the right place, at the right time.

    Typically a core project management team is dedicated to the project from start-up to closeout. This core team would include members of the project management team: project manager, project controls, project procurement, and key members of the function management or experts in the technology of the project.

    Although longer projects may experience more team turnover than shorter projects, it is important on all projects to have team members who can provide continuity through the project phases.

    For example, on a large commercial building project, the civil engineering team that designs the site work where the building will be constructed would make their largest contribution during the early phases of the design.

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    The civil engineering lead would bring on different civil engineering specialties as they were needed. As the civil engineering work is completed and the structural engineering is well underway, a large portion of the civil engineers would be released from the project. The functional managers, the engineering manager, and civil engineering lead would provide expertise during the entire length of the project, addressing technical questions that may arise and addressing change requests.

    Project team members can be assigned to the project from a number of different sources. The organization that charters the project can assign talented managers and staff from functional units within the organization, contract with individuals or agencies to staff positions on the project, temporarily hire staff for the project, or use any combination of these staffing options.

    This staffing approach allows the project manager to create the project organizational culture. Some project cultures are more structured and detail oriented, and some are less structured with less formal roles and communication requirements.

    The type of culture the project manager creates depends greatly on the type of project. Communications Completing a complex project successfully requires teamwork, and teamwork requires good communication among team members.

    Teams that use electronic methods of communicating without face-to-face meetings are called virtual teams. Communicating can be divided into two categories: synchronous and asynchronous. If all the parties to the communication are taking part in the exchange at the same time, the communication is synchronous.

    A telephone conference call is an example of synchronous communication. When the participants are not interacting at the same time, the communication is asynchronous. The letter a at the beginning of the word means not.

    Communications technologies require a variety of compatible devices, software, and service providers, and communication with a global virtual team can involve many different time zones.

    Establishing effective communications requires a communications plan. Project Risk Risk exists on all projects.


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