Z notes biology


  • Interview with Zubair Junjunia, founder of ZNotes
  • CIE IGCSE Biology 0610
  • znotes business igcse Cie
  • A level Biology Notes – 9700
  • igcse biology znotes
  • Interview with Zubair Junjunia, founder of ZNotes

    The Chemical Foundation of Life Search for: Atoms, Isotopes, Ions, and Molecules Overview of Atomic Structure Atoms are made up of particles called protons, neutrons, and electrons, which are responsible for the mass and charge of atoms. Learning Objectives Discuss the electronic and structural properties of an atom Key Takeaways Key Points An atom is composed of two regions: the nucleus, which is in the center of the atom and contains protons and neutrons, and the outer region of the atom, which holds its electrons in orbit around the nucleus.

    Protons and neutrons have approximately the same mass, about 1. Neutrons are uncharged particles found within the nucleus. Key Terms atom: The smallest possible amount of matter which still retains its identity as a chemical element, consisting of a nucleus surrounded by electrons. It weighs 1 amu. It has no charge. It is equal in mass to a proton or it weighs 1 amu.

    An atom is the smallest unit of matter that retains all of the chemical properties of an element. Atoms combine to form molecules, which then interact to form solids, gases, or liquids. For example, water is composed of hydrogen and oxygen atoms that have combined to form water molecules. Many biological processes are devoted to breaking down molecules into their component atoms so they can be reassembled into a more useful molecule. Atomic Particles Atoms consist of three basic particles: protons, electrons, and neutrons.

    The nucleus center of the atom contains the protons positively charged and the neutrons no charge. The outermost regions of the atom are called electron shells and contain the electrons negatively charged. Atoms have different properties based on the arrangement and number of their basic particles.

    The hydrogen atom H contains only one proton, one electron, and no neutrons. This can be determined using the atomic number and the mass number of the element see the concept on atomic numbers and mass numbers. Structure of an atom: Elements, such as helium, depicted here, are made up of atoms. Atoms are made up of protons and neutrons located within the nucleus, with electrons in orbitals surrounding the nucleus.

    Atomic Mass Protons and neutrons have approximately the same mass, about 1. Scientists define this amount of mass as one atomic mass unit amu or one Dalton. Although similar in mass, protons are positively charged, while neutrons have no charge. Therefore, the number of neutrons in an atom contributes significantly to its mass, but not to its charge. Electrons are much smaller in mass than protons, weighing only 9.

    In these atoms, the positive and negative charges cancel each other out, leading to an atom with no net charge. Protons, neutrons, and electrons: Both protons and neutrons have a mass of 1 amu and are found in the nucleus. Electrons have a mass of approximately 0 amu, orbit the nucleus, and have a charge of Exploring Electron Properties: Compare the behavior of electrons to that of other charged particles to discover properties of electrons such as charge and mass.

    Volume of Atoms Accounting for the sizes of protons, neutrons, and electrons, most of the volume of an atom—greater than 99 percent—is, in fact, empty space. Despite all this empty space, solid objects do not just pass through one another.

    The electrons that surround all atoms are negatively charged and cause atoms to repel one another, preventing atoms from occupying the same space. These intermolecular forces prevent you from falling through an object like your chair. Interactive: Build an Atom: Build an atom out of protons, neutrons, and electrons, and see how the element, charge, and mass change.

    Then play a game to test your ideas! Atomic Number and Mass Number The atomic number is the number of protons in an element, while the mass number is the number of protons plus the number of neutrons. Learning Objectives Determine the relationship between the mass number of an atom, its atomic number, its atomic mass, and its number of subatomic particles Key Takeaways Key Points Neutral atoms of each element contain an equal number of protons and electrons. The number of neutrons is variable, resulting in isotopes, which are different forms of the same atom that vary only in the number of neutrons they possess.

    Key Terms mass number: The sum of the number of protons and the number of neutrons in an atom. Atomic Number Neutral atoms of an element contain an equal number of protons and electrons. The number of neutrons can vary to produce isotopes, which are atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons. The number of electrons can also be different in atoms of the same element, thus producing ions charged atoms.

    The small contribution of mass from electrons is disregarded in calculating the mass number. This approximation of mass can be used to easily calculate how many neutrons an element has by simply subtracting the number of protons from the mass number. Protons and neutrons both weigh about one atomic mass unit or amu.

    Isotopes of the same element will have the same atomic number but different mass numbers. Atomic number, chemical symbol, and mass number: Carbon has an atomic number of six, and two stable isotopes with mass numbers of twelve and thirteen, respectively.

    Its average atomic mass is Scientists determine the atomic mass by calculating the mean of the mass numbers for its naturally-occurring isotopes. Often, the resulting number contains a decimal. For example, the atomic mass of chlorine Cl is Given an atomic number Z and mass number A , you can find the number of protons, neutrons, and electrons in a neutral atom.

    Isotopes Isotopes are various forms of an element that have the same number of protons, but a different number of neutrons. Learning Objectives Discuss the properties of isotopes and their use in radiometric dating Key Takeaways Key Points Isotopes are atoms of the same element that contain an identical number of protons, but a different number of neutrons. Despite having different numbers of neutrons, isotopes of the same element have very similar physical properties.

    Some isotopes are unstable and will undergo radioactive decay to become other elements. The predictable half-life of different decaying isotopes allows scientists to date material based on its isotopic composition, such as with Carbon dating.

    Key Terms isotope: Any of two or more forms of an element where the atoms have the same number of protons, but a different number of neutrons within their nuclei. What is an Isotope? Isotopes are various forms of an element that have the same number of protons but a different number of neutrons. Some elements, such as carbon, potassium, and uranium, have multiple naturally-occurring isotopes.

    Isotopes are defined first by their element and then by the sum of the protons and neutrons present. Carbon or 12C contains six protons, six neutrons, and six electrons; therefore, it has a mass number of 12 amu six protons and six neutrons. Carbon or 14C contains six protons, eight neutrons, and six electrons; its atomic mass is 14 amu six protons and eight neutrons.

    While the mass of individual isotopes is different, their physical and chemical properties remain mostly unchanged. Isotopes do differ in their stability. Carbon 12C is the most abundant of the carbon isotopes, accounting for Carbon 14C is unstable and only occurs in trace amounts.

    Neutrons, protons, and positrons can also be emitted and electrons can be captured to attain a more stable atomic configuration lower level of potential energy through a process called radioactive decay. The new atoms created may be in a high energy state and emit gamma rays which lowers the energy but alone does not change the atom into another isotope.

    These atoms are called radioactive isotopes or radioisotopes. Radiocarbon Dating Carbon is normally present in the atmosphere in the form of gaseous compounds like carbon dioxide and methane. Carbon 14C is a naturally-occurring radioisotope that is created from atmospheric 14N nitrogen by the addition of a neutron and the loss of a proton, which is caused by cosmic rays.

    This is a continuous process so more 14C is always being created in the atmosphere. Once produced, the 14C often combines with the oxygen in the atmosphere to form carbon dioxide.

    Carbon dioxide produced in this way diffuses in the atmosphere, is dissolved in the ocean, and is incorporated by plants via photosynthesis. Animals eat the plants and, ultimately, the radiocarbon is distributed throughout the biosphere. In living organisms, the relative amount of 14C in their body is approximately equal to the concentration of 14C in the atmosphere.

    When an organism dies, it is no longer ingesting 14C, so the ratio between 14C and 12C will decline as 14C gradually decays back to 14N. This slow process, which is called beta decay, releases energy through the emission of electrons from the nucleus or positrons. After approximately 5, years, half of the starting concentration of 14C will have been converted back to 14N. This is referred to as its half-life, or the time it takes for half of the original concentration of an isotope to decay back to its more stable form.

    Because the half-life of 14C is long, it is used to date formerly-living objects such as old bones or wood. Comparing the ratio of the 14C concentration found in an object to the amount of 14C in the atmosphere, the amount of the isotope that has not yet decayed can be determined. On the basis of this amount, the age of the material can be accurately calculated, as long as the material is believed to be less than 50, years old.

    This technique is called radiocarbon dating, or carbon dating for short. Application of carbon dating: The age of carbon-containing remains less than 50, years old, such as this pygmy mammoth, can be determined using carbon dating. Other elements have isotopes with different half lives. For example, 40K potassium has a half-life of 1. Scientists often use these other radioactive elements to date objects that are older than 50, years the limit of carbon dating.

    Through the use of radiometric dating, scientists can study the age of fossils or other remains of extinct organisms. The Periodic Table Everything in the universe is made of one or more elements. The periodic table is a means of organizing the various elements according to similar physical and chemical properties. Learning Objectives Discuss the organization of the periodic table Key Takeaways Key Points All matter is made from atoms of one or more elements. Living creatures consist mainly of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen CHON.

    Combining elements creates compounds that may have emergent properties. The periodic table is a listing of the elements according to increasing atomic number that is further organized into columns based on similar physical and chemical properties and electron configuration.

    As one moves down a column or across a row, there are some general trends for the properties of the elements. The periodic table continues to expand today as heavier and heavier elements are created in laboratories around the world.

    CIE IGCSE Biology 0610

    With an emphasis on human biology, the Cambridge IGCSE Biology syllabus helps learners to understand the technological world in which they live, and take an informed interest in science and scientific developments. You can now favourite, share, download notes, papers, other resources and can do much more by simply registering.

    Biology Notes all in one Here is a pdf file with all Biology Notes for you to download. They also develop an understanding of the scientific skills essential for further study at Cambridge International A Level, which are useful in everyday life. A member of The Profs team will be in touch to discuss your tuition plan once you've submitted your details. Please answer the following questions so that a customer service representative can start your search for perfect tutor. It is absolutely free.

    This covers all the topics and modules for all specifications including Just login and you will be able to browse content faster and in a convenient way. Moreover, we have taken convenience to another level now. Below we cover Learners gain an understanding of the basic principles of biology through a mix of theoretical and practical studies. Learners gain an understanding of the basic principles of biology through a mix of theoretical and practical studies.

    All Rights Reserved We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you continue to use this site we will assume that you are happy with it. Co only has past papers available to give you clean and smooth experience for browsing past papers. Click on the Pop-out button on the upper right corner of the pdf file to have full view or click Here to download.

    The pdf files for separate chapters are also available. Find more resources made by Save My Exams today! We adhere to the GDPR and EU laws and we will not share your personal information with or sell it to third-party marketers. Free summarized revision notes for international examination boards written for students, by students.

    znotes business igcse Cie

    Flared ribs risks are there? What possibilities for progress? Covid has had a devastating impact on the health and wellbeing of mankind. At the same time, though, it has also been a reset button. It has challenged some of our greatest assumptions and shaken practices that have been in place for many generations. At the same time, we cannot continue working from home with no scope to discover new people and places.

    Humans are social animals, and for our distinguished breakthroughs, for serendipity to come into action, we must come together socially and professionally with fewer agendas and schedules. Particularly in the field of education, the way technology has been accepted and leveraged is an incredible feat and one that can lead to further democratisation of education in the future. How can institutions, whether in the public, private, or civic sector, help empower youth and facilitate their engagement in public life?

    A hurdle faced by proactive youth who are impassioned to lead change is the inability to speak with those in pivotal and decision-making position in the public, private, or civic sector. Amidst innumerable layers of bureaucracy and policies, it is difficult to begin amplifying and empowering those working on critical projects. The potential impact of young people knocking on doors to share social projects could be greatly enhanced by corporations becoming more vigilant and accessible.

    In addition to this, having the advice and experience of those working in the high-level position available through mentorship programs would be invaluable to some earlier stage projects. The syllabus is wide-ranging and comprises a variety of options. Learners widen their knowledge and understanding of the subject, while developing their investigative abilities and their evaluation and decision-making skills.

    Ocean currents: Streams of water flowing constantly on the ocean surface in definite directions. Geography study tips. Topics that are covered include 1. Geography Notes Form Three Pdf. Deadline: 27 th November. Theme 1: Population and Settlement.

    All the available contents offered here are completely free and provided in the most convenient way. View cie-igcse-geographyskills-znotes. Contents Geography in the primary curriculum The nature of geography 2 Geography in a child-centred curriculum 4 The content of the geography curriculum. Grade Geography Bee Workshop can be requested to go over the registration and on-line qualifying test process and demonstrate resources including apps and board games that can provide a fun way to learn geography for the whole family.

    Through the Cambridge IGCSE Geography syllabus, learners will develop a 'sense of place' by looking at the world around them on a local, regional and global scale. Search this site. Jamestown notes during the Constitutional. This will be really useful to you over the course of your work on understanding maps.

    This post is a compilation of our most viewed notes on Geography, which we think our readers should not miss. You could also call this heading "Our philosophy" or "Our vision. A[ z notes geography On this page you can read or download znotes geography in PDF format.

    List of Pakistan Geography Mcqs for the test of fpsc,kpsc,ppsc,bpsc,spsc,nts tests. Guidance for completing your Revision notes in Geography. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Form 4 Geography.

    A level Biology Notes – 9700

    The basic information that you need to know is in dot points below. KLB Geography Form 3. Visit the embedded map underneath and find a place marker that identifies a meander on the Garonne. The natural environment 2. Some of these phenomenas include language, politics, wars, ceremonies, construction of buildings, etc. I struggled with finding online resources for the new syllabus and so I decided to create a website with various resources and tips that would help students like me!

    Whether you're looking for IB Geography notes for a test on a single topic or cramming for the final IB Geography papers, this guide has all the information you need. The following links will help you to prepare for the Cycle Test and the Examination coming up soon.

    Thohe Pou M. Avoid resits and get better grades with material written specifically Syllabuses A—Z Stage 6. There are few things better than a good political or physical map of the world. Download View. Regional Geography of South Asia. Find out why water and carbon are so important. Tide: Rise and fall of ocean water. ZNotes is a dynamic self-learning platform which harnesses student power to make education accessible to all UN SDG4ZNotes is a dynamic self-learning According to Humboldt, geography is the science related to nature and it studies and describes all material things found on earth.

    Included within this study area are water and carbon cycles, desert systems and landscapes, coastal systems and landscapes and much more. Rocks do not have definite composition of mineral constituents. Files: cambridge igcse biology practical teacher s guide. Maps are representations of the world created by people called cartographers to help other people navigate the world.

    Learners will examine a range of natural and man-made environments, and study some of the processes which affected their development. The past papers and mark schemes are updated every session. Check out the homework help section of the map. On Stuvia you will find the most extensive lecture summaries written by your fellow students. Past papers for all subjects are available from up to the latest session. Z Geography's Map of the World.

    Evaporation: A process through which water turns into vapour. Condensed How geography influenced the decision to settle at.

    Physical geography definition, the branch of geography concerned with natural features and phenomena of the earth's surface, as landforms, drainage features, climates, soils, and vegetation. Asia, S. Why choose this syllabus?

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    Back to contents page www. Biology Notes all in one Here is a pdf file with all Biology Notes for you to download. They also develop an understanding of the scientific skills essential for further study at Cambridge International A Level, which are useful in everyday life.

    A member of The Profs team will be in touch to discuss your tuition plan once you've submitted your details. Please answer the following questions so that a customer service representative can start your search for perfect tutor. It is absolutely free. This covers all the topics and modules for all specifications including


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