Use case diagram for school management system


  • Class Diagram for Library Management System
  • Make Your Ideas Happen
  • Use Case Diagram for Library Management System
  • Live Updates: Latest News on COVID-19 and Higher Education
  • Hire Us for
  • [Mission 2022] SECURE SYNOPSIS: 18 November 2021
  • Class Diagram for Library Management System

    Amid protests by advocates, the Centre notified his transfer. Key Demand of the question: To write about the urgent need of transparency in Judicial transfers. While doing so we should explain why these facts and issues are important and their implications. Structure of the answer: Begin by giving context. Body: First, explain what constitutes a collegium? What are the debates around it.

    The procedure followed by the collegium, Discuss the right to recommend transfers of the collegium. Explain the criticisms and suggest measures to improve transparency. Conclusion: Conclude by writing a way forward. Introduction The judges of the Supreme Court and High Court in India are appointed by President as per article 2 and of the constitution.

    In such appointment, the President is required to hold consultation with such of the Judges of the Supreme Court and of the High Courts in the States as he may deem necessary for the purpose.

    It does not figure in the Constitution, which says judges of the Supreme Court and High Courts are appointed by the President and speaks of a process of consultation. In effect, it is a system under which judges are appointed by an institution comprising judges.

    After some judges were superseded in the appointment of the Chief Justice of India in the s, and attempts made subsequently to affect a mass transfer of High Court judges across the country, there was a perception that the independence of the judiciary was under threat.

    This resulted in a series of cases over the years. On a Presidential Reference for its opinion, the Supreme Court, in the Third Judges Case expanded the collegium to a five-member body, comprising the CJI and four of his senior most colleagues. For other judges of the top court, the proposal is initiated by the CJI. The CJI consults the rest of the collegium members, as well as the senior most judge of the court hailing from the High Court to which the recommended person belongs.

    The collegium takes the call on the elevation. High Court judges are recommended by a collegium comprising the CJI and two senior most judges. Need for reforms in the Collegium system: Credibility of the SC: Controversial collegium system of judicial appointments undermines the independence of judges and raises doubts about the credibility of the highest court. There is a failure to make an assessment of the personality of the contemnor at the time of recommending his name for elevation.

    Example: The controversy over the proposed elevation of Justice P. Dinakaran of the Karnataka High Court to the Supreme Court by the collegium of the Chief Justice and four senior-most judges of the Supreme Court was criticized for overlooking apparently suitable judges by the collegiums The judiciary off late has been caught in many such situations of credibility crisis off late.

    The executive has little or no role in the appointment of judges as a result. Nepotism: Unfortunately, in some cases, it has not covered itself with glory. There have been cases where the nearest relative of Supreme Court judges has been appointed as a high court judge, ignoring merit.

    During the regime of Chief Justice Ranjan Gogoi, judges far lower in the combined All India Seniority of High Court judges were appointed to SC, and the reason assigned was that those selected were found more meritorious.

    Supreme court is overburdened: The Supreme Court did not realize the burden it was imposing on the collegium of selecting judges for the Supreme Court and High Courts and transferring them from one High Court to another. An administrative task of this magnitude must necessarily detract the judges of the collegium from their principal judicial work of hearing and deciding cases. Lack of Transparency: The lack of a written manual for functioning, the absence of selection criteria, the arbitrary reversal of decisions already taken, the selective publication of records of meetings prove the opaqueness of the collegium system.

    No one knows how judges are selected, and the appointments made raise the concerns of propriety, self-selection and nepotism. The system often overlooks several talented junior judges and advocates. The decision was struck down by the SC in on the ground that it posed a threat to the independence of the judiciary.

    Lack of Consensus among Members: The collegium members often face the issue of mutual consent regarding appointment of judges. The shadow of mistrust between the members of the collegium exposes the fault lines within the judiciary. Bobde was perhaps the first chief justice to have not made even a single recommendation for appointment as SC judge due to lack of consensus among the collegium members.

    Unequal Representation: The other area of concern is the composition of the higher judiciary. While data regarding caste is not available, women are fairly underrepresented in the higher judiciary. Delay in Judicial Appointments: The process of judicial appointment is delayed due to delay in recommendations by the collegium for the higher judiciary. Reforms needed in the collegium system: The need of the hour is to revisit the existing system through a transparent and participatory procedure, preferably by an independent broad-based constitutional body guaranteeing judicial primacy but not judicial exclusivity.

    The collegium members have to make a fresh start and engage with each other. A transparent process adds accountability that is much needed to resolve the deadlock. Individual disagreements over certain names will continue to take place, but care must be taken that the institutional imperative of dispensation of justice does not suffer. The new system should ensure independence, reflect diversity, demonstrate professional competence and integrity.

    The system needs to establish a body which is independent and objective in the selection process. In several countries of the Commonwealth, National Judicial Appointment Commissions have been established to select judges. Such judicial commissions have worked with success in the U. Setting up a constitutional body accommodating the federal concept of diversity and independence of judiciary for appointment of judges to the higher judiciary can also be thought of as an alternate measure.

    There should be a fixed time limit for approval of recommendations. As of now, instead of selecting the number of judges required against a certain number of vacancies, the collegium must provide a panel of possible names to the President for appointment in order of preference and other valid criteria. New memorandum of procedure: After the Second and Third Judges Cases, a Memorandum of Procedure had been formulated to govern how the process of how the Collegium would make recommendations to the Executive.

    The government therefore suggested that a new MOP be drafted and finalized for appointment of SC judges and the Executive to get a veto over candidates for national security reasons in this new MOP. These are not simply the moral failings of one individual or the consequences of the misjudgment of a few.

    Make Your Ideas Happen

    Difficulty Level : Basic Last Updated : 08 Jul, In Object-Oriented modeling , the main building block generally represents different objects in a system, their attributes, their different functions, and relationships among objects. These building blocks are known as Class Diagram. Class diagrams are generally used for conceptual modeling of static view of a software application, and for modeling translating models into programming code in a detailed manner.

    At time of developing or construction software systems, a class diagram is widely used. They are also used for data modeling. It is used to show classes, relationships among them, interface, association, etc. Class in a class diagram simply is a blueprint of an object. It simply describes and explains different type of objects in system, and different types of relationships that exist between them.

    Attention reader! Class Diagram for Library Management System : Aggregation and Multiplicity are two important points that need to take into consideration while designing a Class Diagram. Let us understand in detail. Aggregation — Aggregation simply shows a relationship where one thing can exist independently of other thing. It means to create or compose different abstractions together in defining a class.

    Aggregation is represented as a part of relationship in class diagram. In diagram given below, we can see that aggregation is represented by an edge with a diamond end pointing towards superclass.

    These classes are User, Book, and Librarian as shown in diagram. All of these, share a relationship and these relationships are known as aggregate relationships. Multiplicity — Multiplicity means that number of elements of a class is associated with another class. These relations can be one-to-one, many-to-many, and many-to-one or one-to-many. One user has only one account that is denoted by 1 and this represents a one-to-one type of relationship.

    Many books are associated with one librarian and this represents many-to-one or one-to-many type of relationship. All these relationships are shown in diagram.

    Class Diagram for Library Management System simply describes structure of Library Management System class, attributes, methods or operations, relationship among objects. It is central part of organization for which software is being designed. User Class — It manages all operations of user. Librarian Class — It manages all operations of Librarian. Book Class — It manages all operations of books. It is basic building block of system. Account Class — It manages all operations of account.

    Library database Class — It manages all operations of library database. Staff Class — It manages all operations of staff. Student Class — It manages all operations of student.

    In effect, it is a system under which judges are appointed by an institution comprising judges. After some judges were superseded in the appointment of the Chief Justice of India in the s, and attempts made subsequently to affect a mass transfer of High Court judges across the country, there was a perception that the independence of the judiciary was under threat.

    Use Case Diagram for Library Management System

    This resulted in a series of cases over the years. On a Presidential Reference for its opinion, the Supreme Court, in the Third Judges Case expanded the collegium to a five-member body, comprising the CJI and four of his senior most colleagues. For other judges of the top court, the proposal is initiated by the CJI.

    The CJI consults the rest of the collegium members, as well as the senior most judge of the court hailing from the High Court to which the recommended person belongs. The collegium takes the call on the elevation. High Court judges are recommended by a collegium comprising the CJI and two senior most judges.

    Need for reforms in the Collegium system: Credibility of the SC: Controversial collegium system of judicial appointments undermines the independence of judges and raises doubts about the credibility of the highest court. There is a failure to make an assessment of the personality of the contemnor at the time of recommending his name for elevation. Example: The controversy over the proposed elevation of Justice P.

    Dinakaran of the Karnataka High Court to the Supreme Court by the collegium of the Chief Justice and four senior-most judges of the Supreme Court was criticized for overlooking apparently suitable judges by the collegiums The judiciary off late has been caught in many such situations of credibility crisis off late.

    The executive has little or no role in the appointment of judges as a result. Nepotism: Unfortunately, in some cases, it has not covered itself with glory. There have been cases where the nearest relative of Supreme Court judges has been appointed as a high court judge, ignoring merit.

    Live Updates: Latest News on COVID-19 and Higher Education

    During the regime of Chief Justice Ranjan Gogoi, judges far lower in the combined All India Seniority of High Court judges were appointed to SC, and the reason assigned was that those selected were found more meritorious. Supreme court is overburdened: The Supreme Court did not realize the burden it was imposing on the collegium of selecting judges for the Supreme Court and High Courts and transferring them from one High Court to another.

    An administrative task of this magnitude must necessarily detract the judges of the collegium from their principal judicial work of hearing and deciding cases. Any significant increase in ICU patients could put our healthcare system over the threshold. Brown announced "temporary restrictions" due to "an increase in positive asymptomatic COVID cases as the campus resumes significant on-site operations, primarily among undergraduate students.

    Syracuse announced that, in the wake of Saturday's football game, at which few fans followed the rules to be masked, ushers will now enforce masking rules, WSYR News reported. The acting chancellor of the University System of Georgia, Teresa MacCartney, on Thursday defended policies that have been sharply criticized by faculty members, The Atlanta Journal-Constitution reported.

    The system is barring mandates on face masks in classrooms and also vaccine mandates. The system has talked about punishing professors who attempt to enforce a mask mandate in their classroom. It should be no surprise. There are consequences for those not following through and doing their jobs.

    Twenty students tested positive on Monday, and 34 tested positive Tuesday. Based on the contact tracing that we have done -- we get the sense that this is how it spread to as many people as it did," Arcelus said. Liberty University is nearing 1, total cases of COVID this semester, almost as many as it had during the entire fall semester. The university has had cases among students and among faculty and staff members, for a total ofaccording to the Liberty dashboard.

    Liberty has been in a campuswide quarantine that is currently scheduled to lift tomorrow. During the week, 8, tests were completed on students, faculty and staff.

    The positivity rate was 2. Ten clusters were previously reported in residence halls. Rutgers University, the first university in the U. Sanfordthe president. Wisdom, truth and virtue are goods best pursued in dialogue with one another. Small classes led by our dedicated faculty members reading core texts and wrestling with existential questions -- these are the hallmarks of a UD educational experience, and we all desire to return to this as soon as we possibly can.

    We have had more positive cases today, and anticipate continued tests this week. Some of those positives were athletes, and as a result, following [National Collegiate Athletic Association] protocols, several NCAA contests that were planned are being rescheduled.

    I fully anticipate that events that are scheduled for Sept. As we track the effectiveness of the pause w164 water leak containing the high number of cases, we will make a final determination next week with respect to ending the pause as planned.

    About 64 percent of students who responded said they had traveled outside the city for spring break, while 41 percent had socialized indoors without masks. Only three were fully vaccinated. That is a large increase from last week, when Liberty reported total active cases. Other Virginia colleges, which have more students on campus, have far fewer cases. A federal judge on Tuesday issued a temporary restraining order blocking Western Michigan University from enforcing a vaccine mandate for athletes, the Associated Press reported.

    They would have been denied the right to play. Judge Paul Maloney said they are likely to prevail in their suit. Half of those cases were detected in the last 10 days. More than students are in isolation and quarantine.

    Duke University has cases. At UNC Wilmington, nearly students and staff tested positive in the last 10 days. At North Carolina Central University, 81 students and employees tested positive.

    The university announced that "all large indoor gatherings have been suspended during this period" and "indoor dining locations will be participating in a take-out plan. The University of St. Francis, in Illinois, called off a football game scheduled for Sept. Thomas announced. Thomas said it is looking for a replacement team to play Sept. The County College of Morris, a community college in New Jersey, is making the vast majority of classes online only, N.

    Advance Media reported. Generally, only classes with laboratories or studio requirements will be in person. The University of Wisconsin at Madison is being criticized for its plan to house students infected with COVID in university-owned apartments where many graduate students and postdoctoral researchers live, The State Journal reported.

    Many of those who live there have children who are too young to be vaccinated. The university is defending its choice. DesRoches said, "Much remains to be learned about the Delta variant and we need to pay close attention to the current surge that is especially pronounced in Texas.

    Hire Us for

    We need time to test and assess the prevalence of COVID in the Rice community and its related health outcomes, and to implement any appropriate risk mitigation actions, keeping in mind the effectiveness of vaccination in preventing serious illness. She also announced that "if you are currently living on campus this semester but wish to move off campus because of the complexities surrounding the COVID circumstances, housing and dining will waive the fees for breaking the housing contract in the following ways.

    Students that do not move on campus at all will receive a full refund for room and board. But, as much as our vision for our fall start is shifting, I remain optimistic that these changes reflect a relatively short-term opportunity to pause-and-reset, rather than permanent alterations to how life on campus will be this semester. A federal judge blocked a vaccine mandate for all students at the Edwards Via College of Osteopathic Medicine, the Associated Press reported. The college is private, but it operates on the campus of the University of Louisiana at Monroe.

    No Wi-Fi Aug. Morgan said as of Tuesday morning about 30 students had uploaded vaccine information since receiving the email. Jeremy Fischer, who had been an associate professor of philosophy at the University of Alabama in Huntsville, wrote on Twitter"It seems that only when we reach a political, as well as public health, crisis will our university move most or all of our classes safely online.

    But this is a moral emergency, not a time for craven and timorous -- or self-serving responses. Our situation should be regarded alongside not only the flu, but the Tuskegee study. We know what it takes to protect community health and very likely save lives, and we have the ability to do it; what is lacking is the collective willigness to do so.

    Therefore, I have decided to resign my position … effective immediately. Some faculty members at Clemson University are planning a walkout tomorrow over the administration's decision not to require masks in classrooms, The State reported. Kimberly Paul, an associate professor of genetics and chemistry, announced the protest. University leadership is not listening to us. Duke University is reporting new cases of coronavirus, mostly among the vaccinated, WRAL reported. Last week, two coronavirus clusters were identified at the university, involving 29 medical students and seven members of the women's field hockey team.

    All who work or study at colleges and universities in Philadelphia must get vaccinated by mid-October, or wear masks while indoors and get tested for COVID at least once a week, the city announced Friday, The Philadelphia Inquirer reported. Once a college reaches a 90 percent vaccination rate, unvaccinated people can forgo testing but must wear a mask indoors.

    In a statement, Temple University pledged to work toward the goal. Duke University reported Friday that it had discovered two clusters of COVID cases, among a group of medical students and its women's field hockey team.

    A total of 29 med students and seven members of the field hockey team had tested positive and were in isolation for 10 days. All of the students were vaccinated and most had no symptoms; a handful have experienced headaches and congestion. Avery Garfield, the student, said that state law bans such universal vaccine requirements. The suit says Garfield didn't "consent to being a human subject in experimental medicine.

    The vast majority of students have been vaccinated under a university rule. An email to students Wednesday said that the new rule applies to "students living on campus, living in university provided off-campus student housing, or coming to campus, regardless of vaccination status. The university will reach out to these students with further instructions.

    The faculty says "morale is at an all-time low" because vaccines and masks are not required. A spokesman for the board said that Iowa law bars a vaccine mandate and that the board is encouraging people to wear masks on campus, The Iowa City Press-Citizen reported. Faculty members at the University of South Carolina want the university's interim president to reinstate a mask mandate, WLTX reported.

    The interim president, Harris Pastides, lifted the mandate after receiving an opinion from the state's attorney general, who said that a provision of the state budget said, "A public institution of higher learning, including a technical college, may not use any funds appropriated or authorized pursuant to this act to require that its students have received the COVID vaccination in order to be present at the institution's facilities without being required to wear a facemask.

    Or if the user forgets to renew the book till the due date, then the book will be overdue and the user pays fine. User can fill the feedback form available if they want to. Librarian has a key role in this system.

    [Mission 2022] SECURE SYNOPSIS: 18 November 2021

    Librarian adds the records in the library database about each student or user every time issuing the book or returning the book, or paying fine. Librarian also deletes the record of a particular student if the student leaves the college or passed out from the college. If the book no longer exists in the library, then the record of the particular book is also deleted.


    thoughts on “Use case diagram for school management system

    Leave a Reply

    Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *