Intertextuality examples in tv shows


  • 23 Literary Movies and TV Shows You Should Be Watching This Fall
  • PARATEXTS ON TELEVISION. Part 1
  • Intertextuality in literature, Film, and other popular Media: Intermediality and signs relations
  • Examples of Intertextuality in African Literature a. Examples of Intertextuality in Films, Newspapers, Internet 5. Conclusion 1. Introduction Definition of term. Intertextuality is a word coined by Julia Kristeva, a French linguist who has written much on this topic.

    Her notion of Intertextuality refers to the literal and effective presence in a text of another text. A text according to her is a permutation of texts, an Intertextuality in the space of a given text, in which several utterances, taken from other texts, intersect and neutralize one another Allen Kristeva writes: horizontal axis subject-addressee and vertical axis text-context coincide, bringing to light an important factor: each word text is an intersection of word texts where at least one other word text can be read.

    Yet, what appears as a lack of rigour is in fact an insight first introduced into literary theory by Bakhtin:. Any text is constructed as a mosaic of quotation; any text is the absorption and transformation of another. The notion of intertextuality replaces that of intersubjectivity, and poetic language is read as at least double. Kristeva In this paper, I will discuss and analyze some types and theories of intertextuality, while paying much attention to examples.

    These examples would be based on the definitions discussed in this paper, because I discovered in my research that there are conflicting views among scholars on this topic concerning various terms. For instance, while some authors consider pictures as texts, others do not Allen Types of Intertextuality. I would like to analyse two major types of Intertextuality, which are ekphrasis and iconotext. By this definition, both authors mean that ekphrasis comes into being when a writer describes a visual object such as painting or sculpture with a verbal media such as in a novel, poem, or other writings.

    The underlying point here, however, is that the afore mentioned examples are pieces of literature that describe visual art works. Ekphrasis stages a paradoxical performance, promising to give voice to the allegedly silent image even while attempting to overcome the power of the image by transforming and inscribing it Wagner For instance, paintings does not have voice but when one describes painting in writing, he is intentionally or unintentionally, directly or indirectly giving voice to this painting.

    Iconotext This brings us to the second category of intertextuality called iconotext. It is the use of by way of reference or allusion, in an explicit or implicit way an image in a text or vice versa. But Alain Montandon sees it as a Work of arts in which writing and the plastic element present themselves in an inseparable totality. Iconotext can also exist in such works in which one medium is only implied e.

    It can also be seen in novels like Hackers Bischoff in which pictures are used in various parts of the novel to give image to the writing. It should be noted that the said novel has been reproduced as film, but we will come to that later when I shall be discussing film as an example of intertextuality.

    Some theories of Intertextuality I will discuss the theories of intertextuality by Plato, Aristotle, and Roman theorists, while giving some examples based on my understanding. Theory of imitation. According to Roman theorists, imitation presupposes reference to a pre-existent reality which is concrete as well as textual. Joel Weinheimer argues that an imitation has no independent or autonomous essence it is neither a copy nor an original.

    Now in the case of platonic imitation, the poet always copies an earlier act of creation, which is itself already a copy. Certainly, the work of art, to Plato is not autonomous but crossed. We all know what happened ,including the poets. He was deposed from power in a military coup. They are many films about the first and second world wars, and the golf war. In all these cases, we know what happened and we still watch and appreciate the film version of the events.

    He holds that we learn with great pleasure through imitating ,other than our instinct to enjoy works of imitation is inborn instinct. This is so, because by imitating a text, one tends to mix ones ideas with the ideas contained in the imitated text-thus leading to a product of hybridity.

    All the theories discussed above are similar in my point of view. They all underline the fact that imitation has to do with texts known to the authors. A good example of an imitated work is the play, The gods are not to blame by Ola Rutimi,which was copied from a greek tragedy called Odepus and transplanted in an African context. Quotation Imitation leads us to the theory of quotation,which I think is a common practice in academic work because I find it in most of the articles and books that I read, and I have quoted a lot in this paper,too.

    According to kristeva, reading is aggressive participation and also that the reader escapably strives to incorporate the quotation into the unified textuality which makes the text a semiotic unit. This is because there exist an interesting parallel in both literatures. This technique of intertextuality in African literature is called writing back.

    With their texts, colonialist authors legitimized the widespread fallacy that Africa lacked culture, history or literature. Since then, more and more African writers have been creating an intertextual dialogue by putting the right perspective on African culture in opposition to the view of colonialist literary text.

    The aim is to correct the distorted literary depiction of African and questioning the colonial mentality of Europeans and Africans as well. African writers created a more differentiated and realistic picture of Africa and African men.

    In their writings, the latter appear as complex individuals who possess dignity, history and cultural identity and are not primitive, dangerous and barbarous. In some communities, women were considered as individuals whose main roles were to bear children ,raise them and take care of the house hold just like the situation of women in Europe till the 18th century when these women changed their fate through literary and political intertextuality Hill Women were generally portrayed negatively as dangerous and malicious.

    Authors discriminary view women as inferior to men. This notion was later challenged by African women writers who portrayed women in a more differentiated and realistic way than their male colleagues. In their works, they destroy the myth that women are inferior to men, faceless beings, who have made no contribution to history. They correct the image of women in their writings.

    Examples of Intertextuality Intertextuality in Film. According to Bazin, a French film theorist, there is no doubt at all that films were, in principle, works of authors who at certain time and with certain technical and aesthetic means had managed to create certain distinctive cinematic artwork Paech Christian Metz, a German semiologist, purported that films are not only an artwork, but, rather, a textual system that constitutes its own original, singular totality, in which the author, if involved at all, is only a constituent of this system.

    Today, it seems to be more appropriate to speak of film as one medium among others which interacts as multimedia, or is connected to one another intermedially. According to Metz, Film, picture, color, sound, motion, adaptation from literature-whether technological or mechanical medium makes film a sort of technical Gesamtkunstwerk Paech Intertextuality in newspapers.

    Most news papers or magazines contain pictures, or cartoons. The degree of the intertextuality is different. Some are more verbal than visual and vice versa, e,g in most editions of the Rheinischer Merkur news paper see Rheinischer Merkur newspaper. Intertextuality on Computer screens Texts on the computer monitors are said to be completely hyper textual links, i. It is very natural and inevitable in the world of arts. That is why, there are clear approaches in this work to portray intertextuality by means of analyzing arguments from various authorities, and by citing examples from sources that can easily be consulted.

    We are living in a world of Intertextuality or hybridity. Bibliography Allen,Graham. London:Graham Allen. Writing Space; The computer,Hypertext,and the history of writing.

    New Jersey:Lawrence Erlbaum. Bordwell David,Noel Carroll eds. Post theory. Reconstructing Film Studies. Was wird aus Isreal? Media and culture from a semiotic point of view. Worton Micheal,Judith Still eds. Theories and Practices. Mamchester:Manchester University Press. Wagner,Peter ed. Ekphrasis,Iconotexts,and Intermediality-the States of the Arts. Step en route to Intermediality. Plett, Heinrich ed.

    It is not, however, important to underline the proportions of the two major parts of neotelevision: entertainment and infotainment, for paratexts perform their functions inviting both to watch news, entertaining and educational programmes.

    Furthermore, modern television presents itself in two hipergenres, that is to say as public and commercial television. There are only three rules remaining today: public television is an alternative for commercial television, the basis of its existance is public social financing, it also has a particular approach towards its spectators, meaning it involves their opinion and themselves in the process of opening programmes and the creation of programme strategies [Godzic 13—14].

    Among these relations, the image of paratexts in the aforementioned hipergenres seems particularly interesting. Genette considered intertextuality one of possible transtextual relations within the field of literary activity.

    Intertextual relations between a source and a target workpiece consist, as defined by Kristeva, in borrowing literary threads, strategies, solutions and literary motives from a chronologically prior text to the newer one. It has to be, nevertheless, a conscious annexation oriented at intertextual game which then becomes an interpretation task for the reader.

    The higher the competence required for decoding the rules of this game, the better: the reader uses the competence and obtains double satisfaction from reading a book.

    As an example of intertextuality, Genette recognised especially quotations and literary fragments in which the author expresses the borrowing quotes, italics, footnotes, revoking surnames, titles , meanwhile he considered plagiarism as less canonical.

    This is not the right place to illustrate the whole development of literary thoughts on intertextuality, it is only worth noting that its history is truly rich, meanwhile the phenomenon is extraordinarily topical today.

    In his masterpiece, Genette further mentions the architextual relation, which refers the reader to rules and patterns of creating a text based upon genre requirements, that should be known to the reader from previous reading experience. Among the five transtextual relations, the present one is the most abstract and implicit, for its signals are manifested by taxonomical elements for instance a sign on the title page: Novel, Stories — the rest remains in the competence of the reader.

    It is the latter that should classify literary operations and strategies to the poetics he or she already knows. Genette also presents his own vision of metatext, for he understands it mainly as a critical activity, both in the intratextual critical reference to a prior work and extratextual space defined by Genette as transcendent , that is to say in the form of a critical discourse which is created in relation to the work even within a great time span. Genette dedicates, however, most of the space in Palimpsests… to hypertextuality as a relation which has nothing to do with comments, but more with transformation, derivation of a text B hypertext from a text A hipotext , transparent or not.

    The effect of such derivational operations are commonly known types of imitation, such as pastiche, parody, travesty. I place this relation at the end, even though Genette classified it as second in terms of the increasing level of ambiguity and abstractiveness.

    Around metatexts and paratexts. I hereby want to articulate how I perceive the tradition of Genette in details. I consider the question of being an author the key issue in this relation: metatext and the proper text have the same author. In the relation of paratext, this element is absolutely different: the proper text base, corpus has its own creator, meanwhile paratext is created by third parties, interested in the type of recipients the cultural text will find.

    It may be a book editor, film distributor, editor-in-chief of a magazine or of a single issue, webmaster, radio or television managing director.

    It is obvious that the shape of paratext understood in this way is somehow known and accepted by the work author; however, it is difficult to discuss the range of such influence. Time aspect is also meaningful in terms of analysing the range of the above-mentioned concept. Paratext is created after the main text, but its end is the reception of it before the main work, for the function of paratext is to represent and recommend a given cultural text. A change of time relations in the perception of paratext makes it pragmatically senseless.

    In reference to printed texts not interpreted throughout a time span , paratext shall be placed before the main text. It also means that paratext with no time or space proximity of its main text has no sense, and after its reception it stops existing, because its functions have no right to update.

    Paratexts in media studies. The fact that the British researcher considered them a layer of tertiary texts, which can only sporadically come back on TV screens, does not mean he discredits them. The second level of television intertextuality, according to Fiske, is shaped by all reviews appearing in other media about the programme broadcast on a given channel, thus these are opinions of critis on the programme. Finally, first grade texts are television programmes actually broadcast by channels.

    The features that connects the second and the third level of texts are as follows: a the location in case of review printing or the date of broadcast in case of oral texts in respect of the primary text, that is to say of a proper television programme: these are the so-called post-texts; b intermediality which implicates the presence in the media or codes other than television on the radio, in the press, in an average conversation ; c maintaining continuity, for while a television programme is broadcast once in a certan period of time, post-texts prolong and ensure its existence for much longer period than its broadcasting only [Loewe ].

    Both text levels are also a pristine etnosemiological material, as Fisk says, and they allow to prove the polisemanticity of television programmes and to precise their reception. Recently, the author has spoken once more on paratexts; this time, however, he has used this exact term and in reference to the new situation in terms of the media. The cultural change leads, according to the author, to replace the logics of modern with the logics of repeatability.

    He looks not only at what accompanies the film, but also at how it shapes the new recipient and how it controls his or her requirements. Is it that paratexts, which may be considered marginal, become the centre and vice versa? The question remains open. It is sure, nevertheless, that the modern culture revaluates its borders: prefixed centres and peripheries exchange their places or at least move slightly from their previous positions.

    Neotelevision is a good example of this phenomenon, although I tried to demonstrate how many of such transpositions there are in other means currently. In humanistic reflection, the issue of borders, mutual relations centre — periphery, text — margin is still valid, but one must add that it also concerns antynomial relations, i. The fact that the border problem has remained is the evidence of the existence of secondary orality.

    The cyrographic and typograhic culture has overcome confines or any other demarcation line quickly, filling the whiteness of a piece of paper with black signs, then segmenting pieces of paper with margins, running head, footnotes etc.

    The oral culture, on the other hand, had no such explicit, and therefore perfect, ways of defining borders. The only explicit one is the difference between silence and its interruption, in other words speaking. All the rest had to be taken care of by oratory under created rules and recommendations for the perfect speaker.

    Coming back to the contemporary problem of blurring borders between what is important and less important, we mentally restore the order of secondary orality. Another proof of entering into the process of telewriting is the culture of repetitiveness, reduplication, represented by a great amount of media studies experts and philosophers.

    In order to define the place of paratexts on television, we need to define the role of television nowadays. Such a discourse exists as a linear collection of texts sequencing and their concentric environments selection , the lecture of every one of them takes place always by reference to pre-existent texts and those designed for the future. The formation of medial competence serves as the generator of receptive attitudes and has its place in the discussion of media sciences experts but not only on the ways promoting the so-called medial education [Media i edukacja… ; Edukacja medialna ; U progu… ].

    It is worth presenting the views on modern television hipernarration. We should add that the definition of the order of the stream has contemporarily great significance for the advertiser who buys advertising blocks in a certain spot. In broad understanding, the stream consists of proper television channels shows, texts, discours more or less susceptible to its connotative influence; commercials, TV shopping, tele-competitions, which uses television solely as one of means [Godzic ] and autopromoting programmes, such as proper paratexts previews and leads integrated with television boards and jingles.

    The most elaborated elements are proper television texts genres , the least elaborated not to say there are no studies upon this realm are television paratexts; however, there are texts showing a hypothesis that the essence of television are commercials [Banaszkiewicz ].

    Characteristics of Polish neotelevision paratexts. Let us notice that there is a paradoxical situation being created in front of us: new in the field of something known, creation of values upon the splendor of the predecessor, and it is universally thought that every next element in a series of culture texts is usually worse.

    That is why there are so many ephemeral prints, posters, trailers, editorial notes. If one is, therefore, faithful to a television series, he or she should also be faithful to the publishing house, the series or to the author or the musical band.

    For maintaining this need, its continuous adorning, thorougly prepared escorting texts are responsible. Very seldom are culture goods for individual recipients created, but publishers try to make the period of time between the issuing of one good and another one as short as possible. To this end, the illusion of paratexts is used. It shows that the only bought product is already in the past, meanwhile paratexts let us live in the future — which is of course better, richer, thus more advantageous for us.

    Paratextuality, that is to say accompanying one text with another one, recommendation and their presentation, a sort of escort through the jungle of cultural goods is a common phenomenon nowadays. It is not only the domain of television. Other spheres of culture which also want to sell their texts cannot allow delays in informing and recommending their goods.

    It should be added that it is not a new phenomenon, it only augments along with the development of the human culture, especially of the writing Man. I tried to prove the continuity [Loewe ], and the evidence of numerous modern representations of paratexts are the analyses conducted in my monograph [Loewe ]. As we can observe on the basis of the presented set, a very similar repertoire of paratexts can be found in the press and the Internet as well as the radio and television where the order of adaptation was inversely proportional to the chronology of media creation.

    It is newspapers that adapted their front pages to website main pages, meanwhile radio has a schedule similar to the television one. Moreover, the field of paratextuality is elastic, and it has tendencies not only to diversifying changes, but also to the change leading to its enlargement.

    Only a couple of years ago on Polish television, for instance, there was no headline news between the news jingle and the full presentation of the programme by the anchorperson, meanwhile the flash as a separate television programme was tested some years ago by the Katowice regional channel.

    The flash had a state of a somehow independent television programme assured by its setup — before and after it, there was a block of commercials and a block of leads. For example, between the headline news there are no programme inserts apart from the jingle. Let us come back to the definition of a paratext. Accustomed to the modernistic academic paradigm, or defining the borders of examined objects and the type of applied methodology, I recognize paratexts as texts which accompany base texts book, press articles, radio audition literally.

    In printed texts, they co-exist with them, meanwhile in oral texts, they anticipate them directly in the chronologocial order. A rich repertoire of what is created generally because of the existence of a given cultural text is not to be entailed with a single research method although it is discernible by a general participant of culture.

    I think here, for example, about a commercial of a television programme on the radio, in press, as a billboard, poster, cabaret programme based on the television text, gadgets produced for autopromoting purposes of such a television show, interviews about it in press, presentation of the biography of the author as a link on the website of a television channel, presentation of a song or a soundtrack of the television programme on the radio and many other examples of the life of the text life in culture from the first lead upon its existence until the maintaining of the interest in the programme depletes.

    It may be a sinusoidal interest — just as in case of the Milionerzy1 which started with the first season two years ago with all the above-mentioned postfabricates. Seasons moved along, and the postfabricates faded as well. It changed one more when a new season was opened with a new series of old postfabricates. The aforementioned situation concerns probably every seasonal television show.

    For this reason, I want to focus on paratexts, not on postfabricates. Banaszkiewicz, Karina. Bolecki W. Warszawa: PWN, Bolter J. Casetti F. Feuer J. Fiske, John. Television Culture. London: Methuen, Genette G. Genette, Gerard. Seuils, Paris: Seuil, Godzic W. Rabid,

    Some theories of Intertextuality I will discuss the theories of intertextuality by Plato, Aristotle, and Roman theorists, while giving some examples based on my understanding. Theory of imitation. According to Roman theorists, imitation presupposes reference to a pre-existent reality which is concrete as well as textual.

    Joel Weinheimer argues that an imitation has no independent or autonomous essence it is neither a copy nor an original. Now in the case of platonic imitation, the poet always copies an earlier act of creation, which is itself already a copy.

    Certainly, the work of art, to Plato is not autonomous but crossed.

    23 Literary Movies and TV Shows You Should Be Watching This Fall

    We all know what happened ,including the poets. He was deposed from power in a military coup. They are many films about the first and second world wars, and the golf war.

    In all these cases, we know what happened and we still watch and appreciate the film version of the events. He holds that we learn with great pleasure through imitating ,other than our instinct to enjoy works of imitation is inborn instinct.

    PARATEXTS ON TELEVISION. Part 1

    This is so, because by imitating a text, one tends to mix ones ideas with the ideas contained in the imitated text-thus leading to a product of hybridity. All the theories discussed above are similar in my point of view. They all underline the fact that imitation has to do with texts known to the authors. A good example of an imitated work is the play, The gods are not to blame by Ola Rutimi,which was copied from a greek tragedy called Odepus and transplanted in an African context. Quotation Imitation leads us to the theory of quotation,which I think is a common practice in academic work because I find it in most of the articles and books that I read, and I have quoted a lot in this elements of culture ppt. According to kristeva, reading is aggressive participation and also that the reader escapably strives to incorporate the quotation into the unified textuality which makes the text a semiotic unit.

    This is because there exist an interesting parallel in both literatures. This technique of intertextuality in African literature is called writing back. With their texts, colonialist authors legitimized the widespread fallacy that Africa lacked culture, history or literature.

    Since then, more and more African writers have been creating an intertextual dialogue by putting the right perspective on African culture in opposition to the view of colonialist literary text. The aim is to correct the distorted literary depiction of African and questioning the colonial mentality of Europeans and Africans as well.

    African writers created a more differentiated and realistic picture of Africa and African men. In their writings, the latter appear as complex individuals who possess dignity, history and cultural identity and are not primitive, dangerous and barbarous. In some communities, women were considered as individuals whose main roles were to bear children ,raise them and take care of the house hold just like the situation of women in Europe till the 18th century when these women changed their fate through literary and political intertextuality Hill Women were generally portrayed negatively as dangerous and malicious.

    Authors discriminary view women as inferior to men. This notion was later challenged by African women writers who portrayed women in a more differentiated and realistic way than their male colleagues.

    In their works, they destroy the myth that women are inferior to men, faceless beings, who have made no contribution to history. They correct the image of women in their writings. Examples of Intertextuality Intertextuality in Film. According to Bazin, a French film theorist, there is no doubt at all that films were, in principle, works of authors who at certain time and with certain technical and aesthetic means had managed to create certain distinctive cinematic artwork Paech Christian Metz, a German semiologist, purported that films are not only an artwork, but, rather, a textual system that constitutes its own original, singular totality, in which the author, if involved at all, is only a constituent of this system.

    Today, it seems to be more appropriate to speak of film as one medium among others which interacts as multimedia, or is connected to one another intermedially. According to Metz, Film, picture, color, sound, motion, adaptation from literature-whether technological or mechanical medium makes film a sort of technical Gesamtkunstwerk Paech Intertextuality in newspapers.

    Most news papers or magazines contain pictures, or cartoons. The degree of the intertextuality is different. Some are more verbal than visual and vice versa, e,g in most editions of the Rheinischer Merkur news paper see Rheinischer Merkur newspaper. Intertextuality on Computer screens Texts on the computer monitors are said to be completely hyper textual links, i. It is very natural and inevitable in the world of arts. That is why, there are clear approaches in this work to portray intertextuality by means of analyzing arguments from various authorities, and by citing examples from sources that can easily be consulted.

    In various episodes, the show mimics classic shows like The Brady Bunch or Seinfeld and major television events like the Olympics. Example 2 Pastiche is extremely common in music, as musicians must constantly try out new styles in order to keep their sound from getting stale. In these films, the camera techniques and dialogue are highly reminiscent of these two classic genres, and the creativity of the movie comes from mixing the disparate genres together.

    Intertextuality in literature, Film, and other popular Media: Intermediality and signs relations

    The Importance of Pastiche The main purpose of using pastiche is to celebrate great works of the past, or genres that a given show, movie, or story does not actually belong to. When the creator and the audience share a love for this other work, they can celebrate it together through a pastiche. A secondary purpose of pastiche can be to create variety. In a show like The Simpsons, which has been on the air for decades, the writers and animators frequently use pastiche to shake up the look and feel of the show.

    Constantly incorporating new elements helps the creators stay innovative and prevents them from getting stuck in a rut. Pastiche is also extremely important for any artist just starting out — not only in writing and film, but also in music, painting, photography, dance, web design, or any other creative pursuit.

    This is a key process in learning to do anything creative, and is also a great way to figure out what genres come most easily and naturally to you. But it also brings wizards and magical creatures into that world, giving it a unique literary flavor. Examples of Pastiche in Pop Culture Example 1 The film Pacific Rim is a pastiche of the kaiju giant monster and mecha giant robot genres in cinema.


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