Bruise on lower spine toddler


  • Bruises on children: Dr Sam Hay says when you need to worry
  • How to tell if a bruise is from abuse
  • Bruising in leukaemia VS ordinary bruising
  • But how do you know if something is more serious than just a little bump on the swings? Dr Sam Hay explains when we need to worry. October 13, Kidsafe explain how to avoid falls in the home and in the playground. School's in full swing. That means all the joys that school brings - coughs , colds, and rashes - are too.

    When it comes to bruises, when should we worry that it's something more serious than just a little bump from the swings? What is a bruise? Bruising is a good thing, as it helps the body repair after injury. With a knock or a blow, blood vessels are damaged, causing them to become leaky or even bleed into the tissues under the skin.

    This delivers all of the healing properties of blood to the damaged tissue - platelets, red blood cells, white blood cells, and small chemicals e. Blood is red in colour, which means any bruised area will change colour - initially a shade of red or dark red.

    With time, the tissue and the bruise heals, with the bleeding area changing colour, anywhere from purples to greens, to oranges or yellows. Image: iStock I see many parents trying to predict the severity and age of their child's bruise by its colour, but the reality is, there's no science to it. Every bruise goes through a different set of colour changes.

    A 'normal' bruise comes and goes over a week or two. Small bruises that come and go on the parts of the body that easily get knocked and bumped are to be expected. The shins, knee, and elbows are the 'unprotected' parts of our body that run into rocks, stairs, and swings all the time. When it comes to kids, we all know how unsteady they are on their feet - so these spots always cop a battering with the tumbles of life. RELATED: First aid essentials for mums and dads When to worry about a bruise When it comes to bruising, it's pretty hard to qualify what's normal, as everyone is different.

    Some kids bruise quickly and easily with a small trauma, some need a much bigger bump for a bruise to pop up. Whilst most bruises are a rite of passage, some need closer medical attention. When these are suspected, a trip to the doctor is needed, with a bank of tests organised just to make sure.

    Getting a bruise is never fun. Think the kid who's only watched TV all day! Funny spots. Bruises that come up on unusual places that are otherwise 'protected' need thinking about. So look out for bruises on places like the abdomen, especially if there's been no fall, bump, or knock of note.

    Family History. Any unusual bleeding in kids where there's a history of bleeding or bruising diseases in the family needs checking out. Other bleeding. Extra bruises in the context of extra bleeding raise suspicion too, often manifested as regular nose bleeds or bleeding from the gums after brushing. Sudden bruising. If your child has never really been a bruiser, then they suddenly start suffering more or larger spots, then they will need a check-up.

    Swollen joint or "goose egg". A male infant who is starting to walk and presents with a painful swollen joint after a fall is presumed to have haemophilia until proven otherwise. Similarly, an unusually prominent forehead haematoma - the "goose-egg" is alarming.

    Small or pin-prick like spots. Petechiae are small non-blanching spots that crop up, usually many at a time. While they can arise after a viral infection or around the face with lots of coughing or vomiting, they can also be a worrying sign. When kids are sick flat, fever, listless we worry about meningococcal disease, at other times a platelet problem. Best to get these checked out pronto.

    Lumps that won't go away. When trauma is greater, the bleeding and bruising are worse. Sometimes blood collects under the skin as a lump - a haematoma. These mostly settle over weeks and months, but sometimes need drainage. Fever and pus! Tender bruises, especially with pus and a fever could mean there's an infection on board.

    Bone and joint pain. The body produces blood in the bone marrow, and if Leukemia develops, there is a build-up of cells in the marrow. This then leads to aches and pains of the bones and joints. Some children with leukemia may complain of lower back pain. Others may develop a limp due to pain in the legs. Rule out the serious stuff with a doctor if you're worried. Image: iStock How to manage the basic bruise After ruling out the serious stuff, it's time to patch our little ones up.

    While the body will happily sort all bruises out very easily, there are a few things you can do. Cold pack applied for 20 minutes every couple of hours for a couple of days works wonders for pain relief. Plus, it minimises the whole bruising process and helps with healing. Pain Relief. The mere presence of a bruise tells us our kids have been in the wars. If the bruise is tender or they are uncomfortable, then a dose or two of paracetamol will help ease the discomfort.

    A bit of rest. Everyone knows a bruise on a bruise is more painful! Keeping all of this in mind, kids will be kids! Sometimes all they need is a little reassurance and encouragement to get back out there again. If you're concerned about anything your child is presenting, please speak to your local GP for advice.

    This article was first published in February and updated in October Related topics:.

    Bruises may seem like something normal for playful kids. However, even small bruises can signify child abuse. Possibly, but some bruising can signify something much more serious: child abuse. Being able to tell whether a bruise could be from abuse can help protect a child. Many people have the misconception that bruising is obvious and matches the size of an adult hand.

    In reality, the damage from abuse can manifest in a variety of different ways, including small, subtle bruises. Kentucky has consistently ranked as one of the worst states for child abuse and has been the worst state in the country for two years in a row.

    When bruises need to be immediately evaluated: TEN-4 bruising rule The TEN-4 bruising rule is a way for anyone to remember how to spot signs of abuse that need to be evaluated immediately.

    Currie, M. If your child or a child you know has bruises that fall into these categories, he or she needs to be seen immediately in the emergency department. It is. Pediatric experts have found that even small bruises can mean big problems.

    Currie said. And ears do not bruise easily, so when we see a bruise in this location we know to look carefully for additional trauma to the head. Anonymous calls are accepted. Not all bruising comes from abuse; children can bruise from everyday activities such as playing. Normal bruising also usually occurs over bony areas such as the forehead, elbows, knees and shins. Kids will be kids and get bruises from time to time.

    However, if you have any doubts, follow your instincts. Caregivers who may not understand child development may have age-inappropriate expectations for a child in their care and can become frustrated more easily when the child cannot live up to those expectations, especially if the child is younger than 4 years old. For example, most children are unable to stop crying on demand before 4 to 5 years old. They may cry because they are tired, hungry or need their diaper changed. Babies and kids may even cry for no apparent reason.

    Put the baby in a safe place and step away for a few minutes. Take a few deep breaths, listen to your favorite song or do a few exercises.

    Finally, spend time with the people who are caregivers for your children. Pay attention to how your child reacts to them and how they react to your child. Knowing your caregivers can help you notice any shifts in their behavior or that of your child that can alert you to any potential issues.

    Think the kid who's only watched TV all day! Funny spots. Bruises that come up on unusual places that are otherwise 'protected' need thinking about.

    So look out for bruises on places like the abdomen, especially if there's been no fall, bump, or knock of note. Family History. Any unusual bleeding in kids where there's a history of bleeding or bruising diseases in the family needs checking out.

    Other bleeding. Extra bruises in the context of extra bleeding raise suspicion too, often manifested as regular nose bleeds or bleeding from the gums after brushing.

    Sudden bruising. If your child has never really been a bruiser, then they suddenly start suffering more or larger spots, then they will need a check-up.

    Swollen joint or "goose egg". A male infant who is starting to walk and presents with a painful swollen joint after a fall is presumed to have haemophilia until proven otherwise. Similarly, an unusually prominent forehead haematoma - the "goose-egg" is alarming. Small or pin-prick like spots. Petechiae are small non-blanching spots that crop up, usually many at a time.

    While they can arise after a viral infection or around the face with lots of coughing or vomiting, they can also be a worrying sign. When kids are sick flat, fever, listless we worry about meningococcal disease, at other times a platelet problem. Best to get these checked out pronto. Lumps that won't go away.

    Bruises on children: Dr Sam Hay says when you need to worry

    When trauma is greater, the bleeding and bruising are worse. Sometimes blood collects under the skin as a lump - a haematoma. These mostly settle over weeks and months, but sometimes need drainage. Fever and pus! Tender bruises, especially with pus and a fever could mean there's an infection on board. Bone and joint pain. The body produces blood in the bone marrow, and if Leukemia develops, there is a build-up of cells in the marrow. This then leads to aches and pains of the bones and joints.

    Some children with leukemia may complain of lower back pain. Others may develop a limp due to pain in the legs. Rule out the serious stuff with a doctor if you're worried.

    How to tell if a bruise is from abuse

    Image: iStock How to manage the basic bruise After ruling out the serious stuff, it's time to patch our little ones up. While the body will happily sort all bruises out very easily, there are a few things you can do. Cold pack applied for 20 minutes every couple of hours for a couple of days works wonders for pain relief. The bone marrow is a spongy tissue found in the centre of some of your bones.

    It contains stem cells which develop into all the various blood cells. In leukaemia, the bone marrow starts to produce an excess amount of abnormal or un-developed cancerous white blood cells. One blood cell type that can be crowded out by the rapidly dividing leukaemic blood cells are the platelets. Platelets are small cell fragments that flow through the blood and are responsible for causing blood to clot after you injure yourself.

    Therefore, if you have leukaemia, you are more likely to bruise because your body is unable to produce enough platelets to plug up your bleeding blood vessels. Healthy adults will have betweenandplatelets in every microlitre of their blood; any less than this will cause bleeding.

    These small red spots are actually very small bruises that cluster so that they look like a rash. The spots are caused by damage to very small blood vessels in the skin called capillaries. Due to a lack of platelets, people with leukaemia cannot properly seal these damaged blood vessels so that small amounts of blood leak into the skin.

    Bruising in leukaemia VS ordinary bruising

    Normally, petechiae is harmless and is caused by physical strains to the body. For example, hard coughing, vomiting and crying can cause petechiae to occur in the face. Paleness Finally, leukaemia can change the appearance of the skin in a completely different way. As well as leaving dark coloured bruises and rashes over the body, you may find that your skin pales elsewhere.

    People with leukaemia sometimes appear paler than normal because of anaemia. When should I be concerned? If you start noticing bruising or rashes on your body, there is no need for immediate concern.


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