5.1 – Transportation Modes, Modal Competition and Modal Shift
The program aims to improve the urban quality of life, reduce economic losses due to time lost in travel, reduce health costs and premature deaths, reduce greenhouse gas GHG emissions and improve the economic situation of the operators and industry by improving service quality levels.
Jeepneys, the Historic Public Transport The existing public transport system in the Philippines relies primarily on jeepneys, cultural icons of ingenuity initially repurposed from the army Jeeps left after World War II.
Jeepneys are backyard-fabricated vehicles with chassis often as old as 50 to 70 years old and engines more than 15 years old, capable of accommodating passengers.
They are to Filipinos what double-deckers are to Londoners: a dominant cultural icon and a national symbol of pride. The Context With a rapidly growing economy, the Philippines has been seeing the sales of hundreds of thousands of cars sold annually — one of the fastest in the ASEAN — without any significant investment in infrastructure for sustainable modes of urban transport or even road space.
As of , congestion in the capital region of Metro Manila alone has been estimated to cost the country USD 67 million per day due to lost opportunities, additional fuel consumption, and health costs . Accounting for approx. In , road transport GHG emissions were estimated at Emissions from road transport under a business as usual scenario are projected to increase to 87 MtCO2e by , resulting in a rapid enlargement of the carbon footprint and air pollution in urban areas.
Legislation has yet to be passed to formalize this, but many parallel efforts are being pursued to enable better mobility, including the introduction of new rail lines and the promotion of non-motorized transport modes. The Public Transportation System Public transport could be a significant part of a more climate-friendly transport system but it is lacking all preconditions to reach its potential.
The highly fragmented public transport system is dependent on outdated, often small-scale road-based vehicles and is dominated by jeepneys approx. Even with increasing car ownership, the jeepney sector still maintains its high ridership levels. Jeepneys count for approx. The high modal share of jeepneys is due to its relative affordability the base fare for a jeepneys ride is USD 0. Other public transport vehicles include buses approx. The current market situation of the public transport market is characterized by a large number of on-street competing operators for jeepneys, buses, Asian Utility Vehicles AUVs or tricycles.
In Metro Manila alone, over 43, jeepney franchises and over bus franchises have been issued for more than routes, making the public transport market practically impossible to regulate for the government.
This has led to an inefficient supply of low quality public transport service and dangerous and congested traffic situations. The lack of a comprehensive policy framework, inefficient institutions and planning procedures, lack of enforcement and of financial incentives for the operators has led to: A fragmented jeepney industry with inefficient vehicl e fleet and operational set-up.
Undeveloped bus market consisting of aged, second-hand coach buses that do not meet the demand, in particular urban mass-transit needs. Negative externalities: high CO2 emissions, severe air pollution, road safety issues, time loss, etc.
The lack of attractive public transport stimulates the use of cars and motorcycles, exacerbating the already extreme congestion experienced in the larger cities in the Philippines, which in turn leads to economic and environmental costs.
If the quality of the public transport system is not be improved significantly, its recent share in the modal split will further decline, as GDP and car ownership grow. This would result in an increase of GHG emissions by the transport sector.
The Goal: Decarbonising Road-Based Public Transport in the Philippines On the path towards decarbonizing public transport, there are two recognized starting points: Some rather advanced emerging economies have already undertaken serious efforts to formalize parts of their public transport and can start moving on towards electrification.
The majority of developing countries however, including the Philippines, currently still rely on semi-informal and fragmented minibus-based low-quality public transport systems. This by far bigger group of countries is responsible for the majority of GHG emissions from public transport. Mostly developing countries need to undertake huge efforts first to formalize and professionalize their public transport industry moving gradually to larger capacity buses and consolidate operations before the industry is financially capable to introduce hybrid or electric buses at scale.
Therefore, the main goal of the NAMA is to establish a formalized, high quality public transport system inducing ongoing fleet renewal, a transition towards higher capacity vehicles, higher operational efficiency and better service levels.
This will reduce the emission footprint of public transport, mitigate rapid motorization and limit the shift of trips to the carbon intensive use of cars. It furthermore lays the groundwork for the future electrification of the public transport fleet, which is needed to achieve full decarbonisation. The approach: Enabling Transformational Change through comprehensive policy mix and support mechanisms Strong political will is essential to transform an entire public transport market.
This is also true for the market in the Philippines, which in Metro Manila alone is paying the living of approx. Without the foreseen comprehensive market re-organization, public transport will never transform into a modern, reliable and environmentally friendly system that will sustain existing ridership levels.
To enable the Government to efficiently manage and regulate the industry and to allow operational efficiency of the fleet, consolidation is a key strategic intervention.
Part of the regulatory reform is to implement route-based franchising. Under fragmented operations, service levels on a particular route are the result of a multitude of individual decisions made by operators. The process of franchise consolidation and tendering of new franchises presents the opportunity to include new conditions within the terms of the franchise, which extend beyond the previous minimalistic requirements.
It will be critical to implement all components of the PUV modernisation program by acknowledging the distinct knowledge and accomplishments of the existing operators within an insufficient regulatory framework in the past. Therefore, the Government engages with the sector through a series of consultations and workshops. It furthermore establishes a national social support program to operators, which includes trainings and other capacity development measures. Interim Result The first of the modernised jeepney routes commenced operation in and as of mid there are over approved routes nationwide.
Daily staff earnings remained similar at around Overall, the study found that modernisation can yield increased economic performance: the investment in larger vehicles leads to higher farebox revenues and fomalised operations with shift-patterns and fleet management increase vehicle productivity and should yield economies of scale.
As the number of possible developmental i. The COVID pandemic has also significantly affected the ability of operators to run their vehicles and pay the financing. In response to this, the government has doubled the equity subsidy to PHP , approx.
All this will be learned here in Transportation in the past and present essay. Transportation in the past and present essay Transportation is one of the most important things that every day has a tremendous development. Here we will know how transportation developed and how it was in the past and how it has become in the present. All of this we will know here through Transportation in the past and present essay.
Transportation Transport and communication are considered the cornerstones of many human civilizations because of their importance in linking neighboring cities and villages to each other.
Therefore, man has been seeking innovation and discovery for thousands of years to develop and improve these means. Without transportation there is no Interconnection and communication between people. In this paragraph we will talk about transportation in the past and present.
Transportation in the past The development of transport during the stages of history was very slow and difficult, as people were carrying their goods on their heads or on their backs or run on the ground.
In about BC, people began to use animals to transport loads and goods like mules and donkeys. After BC, the vehicles were invented. They were made up of four wheels without a motor. Boats were also invented, and humans began using animals, vehicles and boats to carry loads to many places faster and easier than before.
In the late 18th century inventors produced the first vehicles, and then the inventions in the means of transport until the fifteenth century AD, Where improvements have been made in the construction of large vessels; to make long journeys possible across the various seas and oceans. In the 18th century steam engines were invented, leading to the emergence of steam-powered vehicles and trains.
In the late 19th century, oil and natural gas were discovered and harnessed to serve and develop various means of transport by building vessels and vehicles powered by gas and oil engines.
Trains: trains are one of the most modern means of transport, through which thousands of people are transported through long distances and vast inside or outside their countries, and through which we transfer many different materials and goods, and at a lower price compared to other means.
Buses and trucks: Buses are one of the most important modes of mass transport, transporting many people to and from their workplaces. Buses are used as a public transport. It is cheap and saves time and effort to move around. How transportation has changed from past to present When I wonder about how transportation has changed from the past to the present, I find there is a very wide difference in speed and comfort.
I find that the speed is relative to the person and the extent of his interest in arriving early. Because I see that there is always a lesson that we learn when we travel long distances and time does not go in vain. But there are always interesting events happening around us. As for convenience, I can say that it has become very different between the past and the present. The old means of transportation were more difficult to move or rest periods in places that were not qualified for that.
Therefore, I find that the current amenities, such as comfortable chairs designed to suit your sitting for a long time, using the best and finest fabrics and materials, is very wonderful. Amenities vary according to the means of transportation, whether it is a plane, train, car, or steamer. There is a vast difference that helps you spend a safe and comfortable travel. Therefore, it is great that we are living in this present time and enjoy all these convenient means of transportation.
Transportation in the past In the past, transportation depended on a lot of hard work. Whether to prepare for it since a great time earlier. Preparing many items of food and clothing. And provide plenty of money so that a person can move. This is because of the distances and the presence of large areas that are not qualified for the population, which makes moving from one area to another difficult and fraught with many natural and abnormal risks.
One of the most famous ancient means of transportation was the horse or carts that were drawn by horses. Come later after that car or train. And certainly cars were not made to carry heavy weights or travel long distances.
Also, the roads were not qualified in all countries for movement. Which makes us feel grateful that we live in a time of more development in the means of transportation and also more grateful for the rehabilitation of all countries of the appropriate infrastructure to facilitate transportation. Paragraph about transportation There is no doubt that the means of transportation are of great importance in the growth of the economy of countries. Man has known the importance of transportation since ancient times and used it to move from one place to another, in addition to using it to transport products and merchandise to the markets.
Transportation has witnessed a great development, as it has become more comfortable and faster than before, and has used clean fuels such as gas and electricity to maintain a clean environment and reduce diseases that were spread due to air pollution with car exhaust.
Car exhaust was causing chest and respiratory diseases as a result of emitting large amounts of carbon dioxide. In addition, car exhaust contains high levels of lead, which is very harmful to health. Transportation in the past and present Undoubtedly, the history of transportation development indicates the extent of technological development that occurred during the past few decades.
A series of successive inventions have occurred that revolutionized the world of transportation. Example of transportation in the past About fifty years ago, my grandfather and my father used the steam train to travel, and its speed was slow as it covered a distance of kilometers in several hours, and the seats were made of wood and uncomfortable, and this train was very noisy as it went, in addition to the smoke coming from it which pollutes the air An example of transportation in the present Today, we ride an electric express train, it runs km in several minutes, and its seats are leather, which is very comfortable, and it does not pollute the environment because it uses clean energy, and it does not make noise while it is running.
Compare transportation in the past and present Undoubtedly, we saw in the old films some of the means of transportation that our ancestors used, and we noticed the great difference between them and modern transportation.
The benefits of technological development in transportation The technological development in the means of transportation has provided several benefits that have brought all countries economic progress and growth, such as: Increasing the speed of transportation, which saved a lot of time, in addition to encouraging many people to travel and move from one place to another. Transportation has become more comfortable, in terms of the quality of seats, in addition to providing places on long roads for passengers to rest for some time.
Transportation is now able to transport heavier loads than in the past. Almost sixty years ago, the steam engine was used in all means of transportation, such as cars, buses, trains, and ships.
This was considered a huge development in the transportation industry. Coal continued to be used to power the steam engine until the discovery of petroleum. They used gasoline and gas as fuel to obtain the energy needed for the various means of transportation. Then another progress occurred, where gas was used instead of gasoline in many means of transportation.
Transportation past and present Reduce costs and increase efficiency The most important concern of scientists specialized in the development of transportation means is to reduce costs and increase efficiency. Because the most important goal is to improve the transportation service, while maintaining the reduction of transportation costs. Because this is one of the reasons for the recovery of trade between countries, where the prices of goods do not increase by a high rate as a result of the high cost of transportation.
And the cost reduction leads to a boom in tourism as well, as the cost of transportation is within the reach of many categories of people. Means of transportation in the past What is the motivation behind the development of transportation Global trade is the most powerful driver of transportation development. This trade began since ancient times, when commercial trips were to India to buy spices and fabrics, and transport them to the countries of the Middle East or to Europe.
As well as trips to Africa to transport gold and slaves to Europe and America. The means of transportation used in the past depended on animals.
Till the invention of ships, cars and planes, and as a result exports and imports increased. The development of means of transportation had the greatest role in trade exchange between countries. Transportation then and now essay Roads and transportation We cannot talk about transportation without talking about roads.
Where there is a close link between road construction and transportation development. Would it be useful to develop means of transportation without creating roads that allow transportation to move easily?.
Therefore, it has become necessary to establish new roads commensurate with the speed of transportation, as well as with the increasing number of vehicles.
Gas stations are also set up at suitable distances, especially on long roads. Some maintenance centers are also being established, and services are provided to travelers Transportation today compared to the past The first modern highway was designed in by John Loudon Mack, using soil and gravel as paving.
And when the means of transportation developed, especially in Germany in AD and the United States in AD, the need for the construction of asphalt roads increased accordingly. Iron bars were also used to construct the railways on which the trains travel.
Thus, the road and railways were expanded, which revolutionized the travel of people and the transport of goods. Describe the evolution of transportation and travel essay What are the benefits of the development of means of transportation and what are its harms? Undoubtedly, we are benefiting from the tremendous development that has occurred in the means of transportation.
It saves us time and becomes more comfortable. We do not feel the trouble of traveling as our ancestors did in the past. Where travel has become an enjoyable journey, we can watch a movie or enjoy reading a book.
However, there are risks to our lives due to transportation, such as: Frequent traffic accidents, which claim the lives of many people. Severe congestion, the streets became crowded with public and private cars. An increase in the level of pollution in the environment. A comparison of past and present transportation methods To compare the means of transportation in the past and the present, we can compare speed, effort, cost and risks. Comparison in terms of speed Transportation in the present has become very fast compared to transportation in the past.
Comparison in terms of effort The current means of transportation provide us with comfort and enjoyment of travel. Cost comparison Despite the advantages of modern means of transportation, it is considered less expensive. Comparison in terms of risk Modern means of transportation have become more dangerous due to the huge number of means of transportation that are on the road.
Transportation changes from past to present In the past, humans relied on animals to move from one place to another. Man used donkeys, horses, camels, and mules to move him or carry his goods. Also, some peoples were able to use elephants to move and carry goods. Then the means of transportation developed little by little, until we reached the modern means of transportation with better quality and lower cost.
Also, we can transport thousands of tons of goods from one country to another with ease. This development had a significant impact on the flourishing of trade and the exchange of goods, whether at the local or international levels.
What is the difference between transportation then and now The difference between the means of transportation in the past and the present is very big. Scientists will continue to work on the development of means of transportation in the future. As it is the most important reason for economic progress. You find that local and international trade depends on the development of the transportation network, whether land, sea or air.
For centuries, transport has been a battle of ideologies: the utilitarians versus the romantics. One side strives to optimize journeys against quantifiable measures while the other nostalgically recounts the joys of travel.
We aim for a more balanced position. Imagine if other sectors adopted the same reductionism: if cafes were just about the efficient delivery of calories; if hotels focused solely on their number of beds per square meter; or if health care were solely about longevity, not the reduction of pain.
Difference between ancient and modern means of transport
Establishing what this all means for transport involves thinking less like an economist and more like a real customer. Introducing Homo transporticus Homo economicus, a long-running academic joke, refers to an idealized species of beings who make decisions using rational cost-benefit analysis in an environment of perfect trust, fully aware of all the available options, acting purely in their own self-interest. Outside of academia these conditions exist rarely, if ever. But, for many reasons, Homo economicus is often invoked when we design transportation.
More precisely, transport designers have fabricated a new species: Homo transporticus, a cousin of economic man. Homo transporticus is naturally selected to use modern transportation, with abilities that include a full awareness of the modes of travel available, an encyclopedic knowledge of routes and timetables, the ability to navigate them without hindrance, and the ability to compare two options and always choose between them in a way that a planner would consider to be rational.
Homo transporticus has stable preferences, makes lightning-fast calculations about cost, convenience, and travel time, and always chooses better options when they are available.
Transport designers have fabricated a new species: Homo transporticus, a cousin of economic man.
What is the main difference between ancient and modern means of transport?
Certainly, some avid transport enthusiasts aspire to this kind of mastery: memorizing timetables, seating configurations, traffic light timings, and countless more hacks and workarounds. That the system attracts and rewards such dedication reveals its shortcomings. Transport is for all humans, not just the ones who are keen enough and foolish enough to spend hours researching, memorizing, and perfecting their trip.
These simplifications can simplify demand forecasting, price modeling, and cost-benefit analyses of new infrastructure, but they leave out much that is important.
For instance, our physiology, psychology, and differences in mobility. From a physiological perspective, our bodies are not adapted to the stresses and strains of modern travel. We require a narrow range of temperature, sound, acceleration, and air pressure to ensure we are comfortable and safe. Motion sickness is a conflict between our eyes and our sense of balance.
People with long car commutes are more likely than others to have high blood pressure, to suffer from fatigue and to have difficulty focusing their attention—they are even prone to excessive anger. In hindsight, the supersonic airliner Concorde was an engineering marvel that was incompatible with humans. It produced a deafening boom that prohibited it from overland travel, and the time zone changes across the Atlantic meant it flew too fast for the circadian rhythms of its passengers to adjust.
It was the most extreme example of an inherently biological limitation: jet lag. The body naturally adjusts at the rate of one or two time zones per day, meaning that flying from London to Florida, say, will typically require between three and five days of adjustment after landing. What is the main difference between ancient and modern means of transport?
What is the difference between ancient and modern? When used as nouns, ancient means a person who is very old, whereas modern means someone who lives in modern times.
When used as adjectives, ancient means having lasted from a remote period, whereas modern means pertaining to a current or recent time and style. What is the difference between traditional and modern communication? Traditional means of communication have a passive audience meaning that the audience are not involved in the content in the medium while modern means of communication have an active audience are participating in the content in the medium.
Traditional media: books, newspapers, magazines, television, and radio. A modal shift involves the growth in the demand of a transport mode at the expense of another, although a modal shift can involve an absolute growth in both concerned modes. The comparative advantages behind a modal shift can be in terms of costs, convenience, speed, or reliability.
For passengers, this involved a transition in modal preferences as incomes went up, such as from collective public transit to individual modes motorbikes, automobiles of transportation. For freightthis has implied a shift to faster and more flexible modes when possible and cost-effective, namely trucking and air freight.
A modal shift can further be nuanced by time shift, for which the use of the same mode takes place at another time period, likely when there is less congestion. In a situation of congestion, it is thus likely that time shift will be preferred to modal shift, particularly if the time shift is relatively marginal e.
An individual may delay travel at a later time while a freight delivery can be rescheduled. There are important geographical variations in modal competition. The availability of transport infrastructures and networks varies enormously, with corridors subject to the highest modal competition level.
Corridors have many different modes that, in combination, provide a range of transport services that ensure an efficient commercial environment. Thus, in contrast to the European Union situation, rail freight transport occupies a more significant market share in North America, but passenger rail has a negligible share.
In many parts of the world, however, there are only limited services, and some important modes such as rail may be absent altogether. This limits the choices for passengers and shippers and acts to limit accessibility.
Passengers and freight are forced to use the only available modes that may not be the most effective to support their mobility.
Designing Transport for Humans, Not Econs
Areas with limited modal choices tend to be among the least developed. On the other hand, advanced economies possess a wide range of modes that can provide services to meet the needs of society and the economy. All modes are affected by fuel price volatilityfrom the individual car owner to the corporation operating a fleet of hundreds of aircraft or ships.
Different pricing mechanisms are used, namely direct rate adjustments, as in the case of shipping, or indirect adjustments as in the case of airlines, with the reliance on fuel surcharges when energy prices are increasing. In the context of higher energy prices and environmental concerns and therefore, higher input costs for transportation, the following can be expected: Higher transport costs increase the friction of distance and constrain mobility.
As a major consumer of petroleum, the transport industry must increase rates. Across the board increases cause people to rethink their movement patterns and companies to adjust their supply and distribution chains.
Modernizing Public Transport in the Philippines
Because energy costs impact modes differently, a modal shift can be anticipated. Road and air transport are more energy-intensive than the other modes, so energy price increases are likely to impact them more severely than other modes. This could lead to a shift towards water and rail transport in particular.
Higher fuel prices incite a greater fuel economy across modes and reducing speed. Passengers and Freight: Complementarity versus Competition There is a complementarity between passenger and freight transport systems. With some exceptions, such as buses and pipelines, most transport modes have developed to handle both freight and passenger traffic.
In others, different types of vehicles have been developed for freight and passenger traffic, but they both share the same road infrastructure, such as in rail and road traffic. In shipping, passengers and freight used to share the same vessels and often the same terminals. Since the s, specialization has occurred, and the two are now entirely distinct, except for ferries and some RORO services.
Operational Differences between Passengers and Freight Transportation Sharing freight and passenger modes is not without difficulties, and indeed some of the major problems confronting transportation occur where the two compete for the use of scarce transport infrastructure. For example, trucks in urban areas are seen as a nuisance and a cause of congestion by passenger transport users. Daytime deliveries and double-parked trucks are perceived as a particular nuisance.
The poor performance of some modes, such as rail, is seen as the outcome of freight and passengers having to share routes. There are also growing interests expressed at using segments of transit systems to move freight, particularly in central areas. This raises the question as to what extent and under which circumstances freight and passengers are compatible. The main advantages of joint operations are: High capital costs can be justified and amortized with a diverse revenue stream.
Maintenance costs can be spread over a broader base. The same modes or traction sources can be used for both freight and passengers, particularly for rail. The main disadvantages of joint operations are: Locations of demand rarely match since the origins and destinations of freight flows are usually quite distinct spatially from passenger traffic. Frequency of demand is different for passengers, and the need is for high-frequency service.
For freight, it tends to be somewhat less critical. Timing of service. Demand for passenger services has specific peaks during the day. For freight, it tends to be more evenly spread throughout the day. Several freight operations prefer night services since they ensure that shipments arrive at their destination in the morning. Traffic balance. On a daily basis, passenger flows tend to be in equilibrium, irrespective of the distance involved e.
For freight, market imbalances produce empty flows that require the repositioning of assets. Although freight traffic increasingly demands quality service, delays diversion from posted schedules are unacceptable for passengers.
Sharing routes favor passenger traffic with passenger trains often given priority or trucks excluded from specific areas at certain times of the day. Different operational speeds where passengers demand faster service but specific cargo, such as parcel, facing similar requirements. Security screening measures for passengers and freight require different procedures.
The ongoing separation of passengers and freight on specific gateways and corridors is consequently a likely outcome, involving a growing divergence of flows, modes, and terminals. A Growing Divergence Passengers and freight are increasingly divergent activities as they reflect different transportation markets. In several modes and across many regions, passenger and freight transport are being unbundled.
Shipping It has already been mentioned that in the maritime sector, passenger services have become separated from freight operations. The exception is ferry services, where ro-ro ships on high-frequency services adapt to the needs of both passenger and freight market segments.
These ferry ships can transport cars, buses, and trucks carrying freight with the respective proportions determined by the demand.