SSC ICT MCQ Question With Answer 2021
Chapter 8. It changes the way we interact with our world. Photo courtesy of Frederick M. How many people do you meet for coffee or a movie? How many would you call with news about an illness or invite to your wedding?
Technology has changed how we interact with each other. By thinking of everyone as fair game in networking for personal gain, we can now market ourselves professionally to the world with LinkedIn.
At the same time that technology is expanding the boundaries of our social circles, various media are also changing how we perceive and interact with each other.
Even television is no longer a one-way medium but an interactive one. We are encouraged to tweet, text, or call in to vote for contestants in everything from singing competitions to matchmaking endeavours—bridging the gap between our entertainment and our own lives.
How does technology change our lives for the better? Or does it? When you tweet a social cause or cut and paste a status update about cancer awareness on Facebook, are you promoting social change?
Does the immediate and constant flow of information mean we are more aware and engaged than any society before us? Do media and technology liberate us from gender stereotypes and provide us with a more cosmopolitan understanding of each other, or have they become another tool in promoting misogyny? Is ethnic and gay and lesbian intolerance being promoted through a ceaseless barrage of minority stereotyping in movies, video games, and websites?
These are some of the questions that interest sociologists. How might we examine these issues from a sociological perspective? A structural functionalist would probably focus on what social purposes technology and media serve.
For example, the web is both a form of technology and a form of media, and it links individuals and nations in a communication network that facilitates both small family discussions and global trade networks.
A functionalist would also be interested in the manifest functions of media and technology, as well as their role in social dysfunction. Someone applying the critical perspective would probably focus on the systematic inequality created by differential access to media and technology. For example, how can Canadians be sure the news they hear is an objective account of reality, unsullied by moneyed political interests?
Throughout this chapter, we will use our sociological imagination to explore how media and technology impact society. Technology Today Figure 8. But from the steam engine to the most cutting-edge robotic surgery tools, technology describes the application of science to address the problems of daily life. We might look back at the enormous and clunky computers of the s that had about as much storage as an iPod Shuffle and roll our eyes in disbelief. But chances are 30 years from now our skinny laptops and MP3 players will look just as archaic.
What Is Technology? While most people probably picture computers and cell phones when the subject of technology comes up, technology is not merely a product of the modern era.
For example, fire and stone tools were important forms of technology developed during the Stone Age. Just as the availability of digital technology shapes how we live today, the creation of stone tools changed how premodern humans lived and how well they ate. From the first calculator, invented in BCE in Babylon in the form of an abacus, to the predecessor of the modern computer, created in by Charles Babbage, all of our technological innovations are advancements on previous iterations.
And indeed, all aspects of our lives today are influenced by technology. In agriculture, the introduction of machines that can till, thresh, plant, and harvest greatly reduced the need for manual labour, which in turn meant there were fewer rural jobs, which led to the urbanization of society, as well as lowered birthrates because there was less need for large families to work the farms.
In the criminal justice system, the ability to ascertain innocence through DNA testing has saved the lives of people on death row. The examples are endless: technology plays a role in absolutely every aspect of our lives. Technological Inequality Figure 8. Some schools sport cutting-edge computer labs, while others sport barbed wire. Is your academic technology at the cusp of innovation, relatively disadvantaged, or somewhere in between?
Technology, in particular, often creates changes that lead to ever greater inequalities. In short, the gap gets wider faster. This technological stratification has led to a new focus on ensuring better access for all. There are two forms of technological stratification. The first is differential class-based access to technology in the form of the digital divide. This digital divide has led to the second form, a knowledge gap, which is, as it sounds, an ongoing and increasing gap in information for those who have less access to technology.
Those students with more exposure gain more proficiency, making them far more marketable in an increasingly technology-based job market, leaving our society divided into those with technological knowledge and those without.
Even as we improve access, we have failed to address an increasingly evident gap in e-readiness, the ability to sort through, interpret, and process knowledge Sciadas Since the beginning of the millennium, social science researchers have tried to bring attention to the digital divide, the uneven access to technology along race, class, and geographic lines.
The term became part of the common lexicon in , when then U. Vice-President Al Gore used it in a speech. In part, the issue of the digital divide had to do with communities that received infrastructure upgrades that enabled high-speed internet access, upgrades that largely went to affluent urban and suburban areas, leaving out large swaths of the country.
At the end of the 20th century, technology access was also a big part of the school experience for those whose communities could afford it. Early in the millennium, poorer communities had little or no technology access, while well-off families had personal computers at home and wired classrooms in their schools. In Canada we see a clear relationship between youth computer access and use and socioeconomic status in the home.
As one study points out, about a third of the youth whose parents have no formal or only elementary school education have no computer in their home compared to 13 percent of those whose parent has completed high school Looker and Thiessen In the s, however, the prices for low-end computers dropped considerably, and it appeared the digital divide was ending.
And while it is true that internet usage, even among those with low annual incomes, continues to grow, it would be overly simplistic to say that the digital divide has been completely resolved. In fact, new data from the Pew Research Center suggest the emergence of a new divide. As technological devices gets smaller and more mobile, larger percentages of minority groups are using their phones to connect to the internet. In fact, about 50 percent of people in these minority groups connect to the web via such devices, whereas only one-third of whites do Washington And while it might seem that the internet is the internet, regardless of how you get there, there is a notable difference.
As a result, the digital divide might not mean access to computers or the internet, but rather access to the kind of online technology that allows for empowerment, not just entertainment Washington Liff and Shepard found that although the gender digital divide has decreased in the sense of access to technology, it remained in the sense that women, who are accessing technology shaped primarily by male users, feel less confident in their internet skills and have less internet access at both work and home.
Finally, Guillen and Suarez found that the global digital divide resulted from both the economic and sociopolitical characteristics of countries. People have trouble keeping up with technological innovation. But people may not be to blame, as manufacturers intentionally develop products with short life spans.
Not too quickly, of course, or consumers would not stand for it—but frequently enough that you might find that when the built-in battery on your iPod dies, it costs far more to fix it than to replace it with a newer model.
Appliance repair people say that while they might be fixing some machines that are 20 years old, they generally are not fixing the ones that are seven years old; newer models are built to be thrown out. This is called planned obsolescence, and it is the business practice of planning for a product to be obsolete or unusable from the time it is created The Economist To some extent, this is a natural extension of new and emerging technologies. After all, who is going to cling to an enormous and slow desktop computer from when a few hundred dollars can buy one that is significantly faster and better?
But the practice is not always so benign. The classic example of planned obsolescence is the nylon stocking. This requires the stockings to be discarded and new ones purchased. Not surprisingly, the garment industry did not invest heavily in finding a rip-proof fabric; it was in their best interest that their product be regularly replaced.
Those who use Microsoft Windows might feel that they, like the women who purchase endless pairs of stockings, are victims of planned obsolescence. Every time Windows releases a new operating system, there are typically not many changes that consumers feel they must have. However, the software programs are upwardly compatible only. This means that while the new versions can read older files, the old version cannot read the newer ones.
Even the ancillary technologies based on operating systems are only compatible upward. In , the Windows XP operating system, off the market for over five years, stopped being supported by Microsoft when in reality is has not been supported by newer printers, scanners, and software add-ons for many years. Ultimately, whether you are getting rid of your old product because you are being offered a shiny new free one like the latest smartphone model , or because it costs more to fix than to replace like an iPod , or because not doing so leaves you out of the loop like the Windows system , the result is the same.
But obsolescence gets even more complex. Currently, there is a debate about the true cost of energy consumption for products. This cost would include what is called the embodied energy costs of a product.
Embodied energy is the calculation of all the energy costs required for the resource extraction, manufacturing, transportation, marketing, and disposal of a product. One contested claim is that the energy cost of a single cell phone is about 25 percent of the cost of a new car.
We love our personal technology but it comes with a cost. Think about the incredible social organization undertaken from the idea of manufacturing a cell phone through to its disposal after about two years of use Kedrosky Figure 8.
About 70 percent of e-waste is either illegally disposed of or rudimentally processed in poorer Asian and African countries. Workers in e-waste salvage operations are constantly exposed to toxic substances like lead, mercury, cadmium, arsenic, and flame retardants that are byproducts of dismantling components.
Media and Technology in Society Figure 8. The modern printing press as well as its dated counterparts embodies the intertwined nature of technology and media. Media is a term that refers to all print, digital, and electronic means of communication. From the time the printing press was created and even before , technology has influenced how and where information is shared. Today, it is impossible to discuss media and the ways that societies communicate without addressing the fast-moving pace of technology.
You might tell a handful of people, but probably you would not call up several hundred, including your old high school chemistry teacher, to let them know.
100 Best MCQ of ICT Skills Class 10 IT 402 with Answers
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However, there is no guarantee of the accuracy of the information offered. In fact, the immediacy of new media coupled with the lack of oversight means that we must be more careful than ever to ensure our news is coming from accurate sources.
New media is already redefining information sharing in ways unimaginable even a decade ago. New media giants like Google and Facebook have recently acquired key manufacturers in the aerial drones market creating an exponential ability to reach further in data collecting and dissemination. While the corporate line is benign enough, the implications are much more profound in this largely unregulated arena of aerial monitoring.
But when aligned with military and national surveillance interests these new technologies become largely exempt from regulations and civilian oversight. One of the most popular video games, Grand Theft Auto, has frequently been at the centre of debate about gratuitous violence in the gaming world. It may hearken back to Popeye and Bluto beating up on each other, or Wile E. As a way to guide parents in their programming choices, the motion picture industry put a rating system in place in the s.
But new media—video games in particular—proved to be uncharted territory. Inthe Entertainment Software Rating Board ESRB set a ratings system for games that addressed issues of violence, sexuality, drug use, and the like. California took it a step further by making it illegal to sell video games to underage buyers.
The case led to a heated debate about personal freedoms and child protection, and inthe U. Supreme Court ruled against the California law, stating it violated freedom of speech ProCon With somewhat more muted responses to claims of violations of freedoms, the Canadian rating system through provincial regulation reflects the diversity of interests in connecting media to cultural interests.
Quebec has developed internal legislation and policies for motion picture distribution. Many articles report on the controversy surrounding the linkage between violent video games and violent behaviour.
Are these charges true? Psychologists Anderson and Bushman reviewed plus years of research on the subject and, indetermined that there are causal linkages between violent video game use and aggression. They found that children who had just played a violent video game demonstrated an immediate increase in hostile or aggressive thoughts, an increase in aggressive emotions, and physiological arousal that increased the chances of acting out aggressive behaviour Anderson Ultimately, repeated exposure to this kind of violence leads to increased expectations regarding violence as a solution, increased violent behavioural scripts, and making violent behaviour more cognitively accessible Anderson In short, people who play a lot of these games find it easier to imagine and access violent solutions than nonviolent ones, and are less socialized to see violence as a negative.
While these facts do not mean there is no role for video games, it should give players pause. Increasingly, synergistic advertising practices ensure you are receiving the same message from a variety of sources. Chances are you can guess which brand of beer is for sale at the concession stand. Advertising has changed, as technology and media have allowed consumers to bypass traditional advertising venues.
From the invention of the remote control, which allows us to ignore television advertising without leaving our seats, to recording devices that let us watch television programs but skip the ads, conventional advertising is on the wane. And print media is no different. As mentioned earlier, advertising revenue in newspapers and on television have fallen significantly showing that companies need new ways of getting their message to consumers.
Today, Google alone earns over 50 percent of the mobile device villain quirk ideas generated worldwide Google Investor Relations What is needed for successful new media marketing is research.
In Canada, market research is valued at almost a billion dollars a year, in an industry employing over 1, professional research practitioners with a strong professional association. From market segmentation research to online focus groups, meta-data analysis to crowdsourcing, market research has embraced new media to create winning and profitable revenue streams for web-based corporations. As an aside, researchers trained in the social sciences, including sociology are well represented with successful careers in this industry the author is a Certified Marketing Research Professional with the MRIA.
Global Implications Figure 8. These Twitter updates—a revolution in real time—show the role social media can play on the political stage. The first edition of The World Is Flat, written inposits that core economic concepts were changed by personal computing and high-speed internet. Access to these two technological shifts has allowed core-nation corporations to recruit workers in call centres located in China or India. Using examples like a Midwestern American woman who runs a business from her home via the call centres of Bangalore, India, Friedman warns that this new world order will exist whether core-nation businesses are ready or not, and that in order to keep its key economic role in the world, North America will need to pay attention to how it prepares workers of the 21st century for this dynamic.
Many economists pointed out that, in reality, uptobox error hotlinking, economic activity, and population still gather in geographically attractive areas, continuing to create economic peaks and valleys, which are by no means flattened out to mean equality for all.
It is worth noting that Friedman is an economist, not a sociologist. His work focuses on the economic gains and risks this new world order entails. In this section, we will look more closely at how media globalization and technological globalization play out in a sociological perspective.
As the names suggest, media globalization is the worldwide integration of media through the cross-cultural exchange of ideas, while technological globalization refers to the cross-cultural development and exchange of technology.
Media Globalization Lyons suggests that multinational corporations are the primary vehicle of media globalization. These corporations control global mass-media content and distribution Compaine It is true, when looking at who controls which media outlets, that there are fewer independent news sources as larger and larger conglomerates develop.
On the surface, there is endless opportunity to find diverse media outlets. But the numbers are misleading. Mass media control and ownership is highly concentrated in Canada. Bell, Telus, and Rogers control over 80 percent of the wireless and internet service provider market; 70 percent of the daily and community newspapers are owned by seven corporations; and 10 companies control over 80 percent of the private sector radio and television market CMCRP N. While some social scientists predicted that the increase in media forms would break down geographical barriers and create a global village McLuhancurrent research suggests that the public sphere accessing the global village will tend to be rich, Caucasian, and English-speaking Jan As shown by the spring uprisings throughout the Arab world, technology really does offer a window into the news of the world.
For example, here in the West we saw internet updates of Egyptian events in real time, with people tweeting, posting, and blogging on the ground in Tahrir Square. Still, there is no question that the exchange of technology from core nations to peripheral and semi-peripheral ones leads to a number of complex issues.
For instance, someone using a critical sociology approach might focus on how much political ideology and cultural colonialism occurs with technological growth. In theory at least, technological innovations are ideology-free; a fibre optic cable is the same in a Muslim country as a secular one, in a communist country or a capitalist one.
But those who bring technology to less developed nations—whether they are nongovernment organizations, businesses, or governments—usually have an agenda. A functionalist, in contrast, might focus on how technology creates new ways to share information about successful crop-growing programs, or on the economic benefits of opening a new market for cell phone use. Interpretive sociologists might emphasize the way in which the global exchange of views creates the possibility of mutual understanding and consensus.
In each case, there are cultural and societal assumptions and norms being delivered along with those high-speed connections.
Application of ICT in Research, Role and Tools of ICT
Cultural and ideological biases are not the only risks of media globalization. In addition to the risk of cultural imperialism and the loss of local culture, other problems come with the benefits of a more interconnected globe.
One risk is the potential censoring by national governments that let in only the information and media they feel serves their message, as can be seen in China. In addition, core nations such as Canada have seen the use of international media such as the internet circumvent local laws against socially deviant and dangerous behaviours such as gambling, child pornography, and the sex trade.
Offshore or international websites allow citizens to seek out whatever illegal or illicit information they want, from hour online gambling sites that do not require proof of age, to sites that sell child pornography. These examples illustrate the societal risks of unfettered information flow. What is censored from their view? Can we allow one or more of those activities, while restricting the rest?
And who decides what needs restricting? In a country with democratic principles and an underlying belief in free-market capitalism, the answer is decided in the court system. China is in many ways the global poster child for the uncomfortable relationship between internet freedom and government control. Microblogging, or weibo, acts like Twitter in that users can post short messages that can be read by their subscribers.
And because these services move so quickly and with such wide scope, it is difficult for government overseers to keep up. This tool was used to criticize government response to a deadly rail crash and to protest a chemical plant. But the government cannot shut down this flow of information completely. Foreign companies, seeking to engage with the increasingly important Chinese consumer market, have their own accounts: the NBA has more than 5 million followers, and probably the most famous foreigner in China, Octoprint docker comedian and Order of Canada recipient Mark Rowswell boasts almost 3 million Weibo followers The government, too, uses Weibo to get its own message across.
Technological Globalization Technological globalization is impacted in large part by technological diffusion, the spread of technology across borders. In the last two decades, there has been rapid improvement in the spread of technology to peripheral and semi-peripheral nations, and a World Bank report discusses both the benefits and ongoing challenges of this diffusion.
In general, the report found that technological progress and economic growth rates were linked, and that the rise in technological progress has helped improve the situations of many living in absolute poverty World Bank The report recognizes that rural and low-tech products such as corn can benefit from new technological innovations, and that, conversely, technologies like mobile banking can aid those whose rural existence consists of low-tech market vending. In addition, technological advances in areas like mobile phones can lead to competition, lowered prices, and concurrent improvements in related areas such as mobile banking and information sharing.
However, the same patterns of social inequality that create a digital divide in the West also create digital divides in peripheral and semi-peripheral nations. While the growth of technology use among countries has increased dramatically over the past several decades, the spread of technology within countries is significantly slower among peripheral and semi-peripheral nations.
In these countries, far fewer people have the training and skills to take advantage of new technology, let alone access it. Technological access tends to be clustered around urban areas, leaving out vast swaths of peripheral-nation citizens. While the diffusion of information technologies has the potential to resolve many global social problems, it is often the population most in need that is most affected by the digital divide.
Bad roads, limited electricity, minimal schools—the list goes on. Access to telephones has long been on that list. With access to mobile phone technology, a host of benefits are available that have the potential to change the dynamics in these poorest nations. Sometimes that change is as simple as being able to make a phone call to neighbouring market towns. By finding out which markets have vendors interested in their goods, fishers and farmers can ensure they travel to the market that will serve them best, avoiding a wasted trip.
Others can use mobile phones and some of the emerging money-sending systems to securely send money from one place to a family member or business partner elsewhere Katine Not all access is corporate-based, however. Other programs are funded by business organizations that seek to help peripheral nations with tools for innovation and entrepreneurship.
But this wave of innovation and potential business comes with costs.
Chapter 8. Media and Technology
Whether well intentioned or not, the vision of a continent of Africans successfully chatting on their iPhone may not be ideal. As with all aspects of global inequity, technology in Africa requires more than just foreign investment.
There must be a concerted effort to ensure the benefits of technology get to where they are needed most. Theoretical Perspectives on Media and Technology It is difficult to conceive of any one theory or theoretical perspective that can explain the variety of ways that people interact with technology and the media.
Technology runs the gamut from the match you strike to light a candle all the way up to sophisticated nuclear power plants that might power the factory where that candle was made. Media could refer to the television you watch, the ads wrapping the bus you take to work or school, or the magazines you flip through in a waiting room, not to mention all the forms of new media, including Twitter, Facebook, blogs, YouTube, and the like.
Are media and technology critical to the forward march of humanity? Are they pernicious capitalist tools that lead to the exploitation of workers worldwide? Each perspective generates understandings of technology and media that help us examine the way our lives are affected. Structural Functionalism Because functionalism focuses on how media and technology contribute to the smooth functioning of society, a good place to begin understanding this perspective is to write a list of functions you perceive media and technology to perform.
Commercial Function Figure 8. TV commercials can carry significant cultural currency. For some, the ads during the Super Bowl are more water cooler-worthy than the game itself.
Television advertising is a highly functional way to meet a market demographic where it lives. Sponsors can use the sophisticated data gathered by network and cable television companies regarding their viewers and target their advertising accordingly. Commercial advertising precedes movies in theatres and shows up on and inside of public transportation, as well as on the sides of buildings and roadways.
Major corporations such as Coca-Cola bring their advertising into public schools, sponsoring sports fields or tournaments, as well as filling the halls and cafeterias of those schools with vending machines hawking their goods. With the rising concerns about childhood obesity and attendant diseases, the era of pop machines in schools may be numbered. But not to worry. Entertainment Function An obvious manifest function of media is its entertainment value. Most people, when asked why they watch television or go to the movies, would answer that they enjoy it.
Within the 98 percent of households that have a TV, the amount of time spent watching is substantial, with the average adult Canadian viewing time of 30 hours a week TVB Clearly, enjoyment is paramount. On the technology side, as well, there is a clear entertainment factor to the use of new innovations.
From online gaming to chatting with friends on Facebook, technology offers new and more exciting ways for people to entertain themselves. Social Norm Functions Even while the media is selling us goods and entertaining us, it also serves to socialize us, helping us pass along norms, values, and beliefs to the next generation. In fact, we are socialized and resocialized by media throughout our life course.
All forms of media teach us what is good and desirable, how we should speak, how we should behave, and how we should react to events. Media also provide us with cultural touchstones during events of national significance. How many of your older relatives can recall watching the explosion of the space shuttle Challenger on television? How many of those reading this textbook followed the events of September 11 or Hurricane Katrina on the television or internet? But debate exists over the extent and impact of media socialization.
Krahe and colleagues demonstrated that violent media content has a desensitizing affect and is correlated with aggressive thoughts. Another group of scholars Gentile, Mathieson, and Crick found that among children, exposure to media violence led to an increase in both physical and relational aggression. Yet, a meta-analysis study covering four decades of research Savage could not establish a definitive link between viewing violence and committing criminal violence.
It is clear from watching people emulate the styles of dress and talk that appear in media that media has a socializing influence. What is not clear, despite nearly 50 years of empirical research, is how much socializing influence the media has when compared to other agents of socialization, which include any social institution that passes along norms, values, and beliefs such as peers, family, religious institutions, and the like.
Life-Changing Functions Like media, many forms of technology do indeed entertain us, provide a venue for commercialization, and socialize us. For example, some studies suggest the rising obesity rate is correlated with the decrease in physical activity caused by an increase in use of some forms height badhane ki powder technology, a latent function of the prevalence of media in society Kautiainen et al.
Without a doubt, a manifest function of technology is to change our lives, sometimes for the better and sometimes for the worse. Think of how the digital age has improved the ways we communicate. Have you ever used Skype or another webcast to talk to a friend or family member far away? Or maybe you have organized a fund drive, raising thousands of dollars, all from your desk chair. Of course, the downside to this ongoing information flow is the near impossibility of disconnecting from technology, leading to an expectation of constant convenient access to information and people.
Such a fast-paced dynamic is not always to our benefit. Some sociologists assert that this level of media exposure leads to narcotizing dysfunction, a term that describes when people are too overwhelmed with media input to really care about the issue, so their involvement becomes defined by awareness instead of by action about the issue at hand Lazerfeld and Merton Critical Sociology In contrast to theories in the functional perspective, the critical perspective focuses on the creation and reproduction of inequality—social processes that tend to disrupt society rather than contribute to its smooth operation.
When taking a critical perspective, one major focus is the differential access to media and technology embodied in the digital divide. Critical sociologists also look at who controls the media, and how media promotes the norms of upper-middle-class white demographics while minimizing the presence of the working class, especially people of colour. Control of Media and Technology Powerful individuals and social institutions have a great deal of influence over which forms of technology are released, when and where they are released, and what kind of media is available for our consumption, a form of gatekeeping.
Shoemaker and Voss define gatekeeping as the sorting process by which thousands of possible messages are shaped into a mass media—appropriate form and reduced to a manageable amount. In other words, the people in charge of the media decide what the public is exposed to, which, as C. With a hegemonic media, culturally diverse society can be dominated by one race, gender, or class through the manipulation of the media imposing its worldview as a societal norm.
New media renders the gatekeeper role less of a factor in information distribution. Popular sites such as YouTube and Facebook engage in a form of democratized self-policing. Users are encouraged to report inappropriate behaviour that moderators will then address. In addition, some conflict theorists suggest that the way North American media is generated results in an unbalanced political arena. Those with the most money can buy the most media exposure, run smear campaigns against their competitors, and maximize their visual presence.
The Conservative Party began running attack ads on Lg uk6950 Trudeau moments after his acceptance speech on winning the leadership of the Liberal Party in It is difficult to avoid the Enbridge and Cenovus advertisements that promote their controversial Northern Gateway pipeline and tar sands projects.
What do you think a critical perspective theorist would suggest about the potential for the non-rich to be heard in politics? Technological Social Control and Digital Surveillance Social scientists take the idea of the surveillance society so seriously that there is an entire journal devoted to its study, Surveillance and Society.
The panoptic surveillance envisioned by Jeremy Bentham and later analyzed by Michel Foucault is increasingly realized in the form of technology used to monitor our every move. This surveillance was imagined as a form of complete visibility and constant monitoring in which the observation posts are centralized and the observed are never communicated with directly.
Today, digital security cameras capture our movements, observers can track us through our cell phones, and police forces around the world use facial-recognition software. Feminist Perspective Figure 8. What types of women are we exposed to in the media? Some would argue that the range of female images is misleadingly narrow. In most, women are portrayed in a particular set of parameters and tend to have a uniform look that society recognizes as attractive.
Most are thin, white or light-skinned, beautiful, and young. Why does this matter? Feminist perspective theorists believe it is crucial in creating and reinforcing stereotypes. For example, Fox and Bailenson found that online female avatars the characters you play in online games like World of Warcraft or Second Life conforming to gender stereotypes enhances negative attitudes toward women, and Brasted found that media advertising in particular promotes gender stereotypes.
The gender gap in tech-related fields science, technology, engineering, and math is no secret. A U. Department of Commerce report suggested that gender stereotyping is one reason for this gap, acknowledging the bias toward men as keepers of technological knowledge U. Department of Commerce But gender stereotypes go far beyond the use of technology. Press coverage in the media reinforces stereotypes that subordinate women, giving airtime to looks over skills, and disparaging women who defy accepted norms.
Recent research in new media has offered a mixed picture of its potential to equalize the status of men and women in the arenas of technology and public discourse. A European agency, the Advisory Committee on Equal Opportunities for Men and Womenissued an opinion report suggesting that while there is the potential for new media forms to perpetuate gender stereotypes and the gender gap in technology and media access, at the same time new media could offer alternative forums for feminist groups and the exchange of feminist ideas.
Still, the committee warned against the relatively unregulated environment of new media and the potential for antifeminist activities, from pornography to human trafficking, to flourish there. Increasingly prominent in the discussion of new media and feminism is cyberfeminism, the application to, and promotion of, feminism online. Research on cyberfeminism runs the gamut from the liberating use of blogs by women living in Iraq during the second Gulf War Pierce to the analysis of postmodern discourse on the relationship between the body and technology Kerr Symbolic Interactionism Technology itself may act as a symbol for many.
The kind of computer you own, the kind of car you drive, whether or not you can afford the latest Apple product—these serve as a social indicator of wealth and status. Neo-Luddites are people who see technology as symbolizing the coldness and alienation of modern life. But for technophiles, technology symbolizes the potential for a brighter future. For those adopting an ideological middle ground, technology might symbolize status in the form of a massive flat-screen television or failure in owning a basic old mobile phone with no bells or whistles.
Social Construction of Reality Meanwhile, media create and spread symbols that become the basis for our shared understanding of society. Theorists working in the interactionist perspective focus on this social construction of reality, an ongoing process in which people subjectively create and understand reality.
Media constructs our reality in a number of ways. For some, the people they watch on a screen can become a primary group, meaning the small informal groups of people who are closest to them. For many others, media becomes a reference group: a group that influences an individual and to which an individual compares himself or herself, and by which we judge our successes and failures. We might do very well without an Android smartphone, until we see characters using it on our favourite television show or our classmates whipping one out between classes.
While media may indeed be the medium to spread the message of the rich white males, Gamson, Croteau, Hoynes, and Sasson point out that some forms of media discourse allow the appearance of competing constructions of reality.
For example, advertisers find new and creative ways to sell us products we do not need and probably would not want without their prompting, but some networking sites such as Freecycle offer a commercial-free way of requesting and trading items that would otherwise be discarded.
Social Networking and Social Construction While Twitter and Facebook encourage us to check in and provide details of our day through online social networks, corporations can just as easily promote their products on these sites. Even supposedly crowd-sourced sites like Yelp which aggregates local reviews are not immune to corporate shenanigans.
That is, we think we are reading objective observations when in reality we may be buying into one more form of advertising. Facebook, which started as a free social network for college students, is increasingly a monetized business, selling you goods and services in subtle ways.
But chances are you do not think of Facebook as one big online advertisement. What started out as a symbol of coolness and insider status, unavailable and inaccessible to parents and corporate shills, now promotes consumerism in the form of games and fandom. For example, think of all the money spent to upgrade popular Facebook games like Farmville.
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It was created to improve UNESCO's statistical programme and to develop and deliver the timely, accurate and policy-relevant statistics 3d map generator terrain 1. The UIS was established in Teacher education refers to the policies and procedures designed to equip potential teachers with the knowledge, attitudes, behaviors and skills they require to perform their tasks effectively in the classroom, school and wider community.
Educational technology, sometimes shortened to EduTech or EdTech, is a wide field. Therefore, one can find many definitions, some of which are conflicting. Information dashboard design: The effective visual communication ofdata.
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It comes from the Greek word "techne " which means an art or craft. See Selwood,for a discussion of the possible language of the Ten Commandments. Which of the following is NOT an example of communicative tool? Another source was Seay, Rudolph, and Chamberlainwho used items measuring perceptions of interactive television instruction.
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